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Open AccessArticle

Electronic and Crystallographic Examinations of the Homoepitaxially Grown Rubrene Single Crystals

1
Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science, Noda 278-8510, Japan
2
Institute for Molecular Science (IMS), National Institutes of Natural Sciences, and SOKENDAI, Okazaki 444-8787, Japan
3
National Metrology Institute of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568, Japan
4
Industrial Application Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081978
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 17 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 23 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Functional Materials)
Homoepitaxial growth of organic semiconductor single crystals is a promising methodology toward the establishment of doping technology for organic opto-electronic applications. In this study, both electronic and crystallographic properties of homoepitaxially grown single crystals of rubrene were accurately examined. Undistorted lattice structures of homoepitaxial rubrene were confirmed by high-resolution analyses of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) using synchrotron radiation. Upon bulk doping of acceptor molecules into the homoepitaxial single crystals of rubrene, highly sensitive photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS) measurements unveiled a transition of the electronic states, from induction of hole states at the valence band maximum at an adequate doping ratio (10 ppm), to disturbance of the valence band itself for excessive ratios (≥ 1000 ppm), probably due to the lattice distortion. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic semiconductor; doping; photoelectron yield spectroscopy; grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction; gap states; organic photovoltaic cell organic semiconductor; doping; photoelectron yield spectroscopy; grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction; gap states; organic photovoltaic cell
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakayama, Y.; Iwashita, M.; Kikuchi, M.; Tsuruta, R.; Yoshida, K.; Gunjo, Y.; Yabara, Y.; Hosokai, T.; Koganezawa, T.; Izawa, S.; Hiramoto, M. Electronic and Crystallographic Examinations of the Homoepitaxially Grown Rubrene Single Crystals. Materials 2020, 13, 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081978

AMA Style

Nakayama Y, Iwashita M, Kikuchi M, Tsuruta R, Yoshida K, Gunjo Y, Yabara Y, Hosokai T, Koganezawa T, Izawa S, Hiramoto M. Electronic and Crystallographic Examinations of the Homoepitaxially Grown Rubrene Single Crystals. Materials. 2020; 13(8):1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081978

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakayama, Yasuo; Iwashita, Masaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Tsuruta, Ryohei; Yoshida, Koki; Gunjo, Yuki; Yabara, Yusuke; Hosokai, Takuya; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Izawa, Seiichiro; Hiramoto, Masahiro. 2020. "Electronic and Crystallographic Examinations of the Homoepitaxially Grown Rubrene Single Crystals" Materials 13, no. 8: 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081978

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