Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is considered a bioactive endodontic material, which promotes natural mineralization at the material-tooth tissue interface. MTA Repair HP stands out because of the short setting time and the quick and effective bioactive response in vitro. The bioactivity, depens on material composition and microstructure. This work is devoted to analyze MTA Repair HP microstructural features, of both the powder precursor and set material, to get insights into the material physicochemical parameters—functionality performance relationships. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses were performed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were carried out at different times to investigate setting process. Bioactivity evaluation in vitro was carried out by soaking the processed cement disk in simulated body fluid (SBF). The presented results point out those MTA Repair HP precursor material characteristics of tricalcium silicate particles of nanometric size and high aspect ratio, which provide an elevated surface area and maximized components dispersion of calcium silicate and very reactive calcium aluminate. The MTA Repair HP precursor powder nanostructure and formulation, allows a hydration process comprising silicate hydrate structures, which are very effective to achieve both fast setting and efficient bioactive response.
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