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Tailoring Surface Chemistry of Sugar-Derived Ordered Mesoporous Carbons towards Efficient Removal of Diclofenac from Aquatic Environments

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
2
Confocal and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Konstantynów Sq. 1J, 20-708 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54-124 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, Nicosia CY-1678, Cyprus
5
Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071625
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 26 March 2020 / Accepted: 28 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
Ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3), obtained from an abundant natural source, sugar, was thermochemically modified with dicyandiamide and thiourea as well as by classical oxidization with hydrogen peroxide to introduce specific surface groups. Thermochemical modifications resulted in carbon with almost unchanged porosity and altered surface chemistry while porosity of H2O2-treated carbon was seriously deteriorated. The obtained carbons were tested as sorbents of diclofenac, considered as one of the emerging water contaminants. Changes in porosity and surface chemistry of modified carbons resulted in significant differences with regard to the uptake of diclofenac. Dicyandiamide-modified carbon showed highest uptake of drugs, reaching 241 mg g−1 that is attributed to its developed microporosity as well as surface chemistry composed of basic groups facilitating electrostatic interactions with diclofenac anions. Desorption study showed that diclofenac is strongly bonded, albeit with a different degree depending on the modification of the CMK-carbon. The obtained results were compared with up-to-date literature regarding sorption of diclofenac by carbon-based sorbents. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesoporous carbon; bioresources; water remediation; adsorption; pharmaceuticals mesoporous carbon; bioresources; water remediation; adsorption; pharmaceuticals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olchowski, R.; Zięba, E.; Giannakoudakis, D.A.; Anastopoulos, I.; Dobrowolski, R.; Barczak, M. Tailoring Surface Chemistry of Sugar-Derived Ordered Mesoporous Carbons towards Efficient Removal of Diclofenac from Aquatic Environments. Materials 2020, 13, 1625.

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