# Study on Structural Performance of Asphalt Concrete and Hot Rolled Sheet Through Viscoelastic Characterization

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Specimen Preparation

#### 2.2. Marshall Stability Test

#### 2.3. Dynamic Modulus Test

#### 2.4. Generating Dynamic Modulus Master Curves

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Marshall Test

#### 3.2. Dynamic Modulus of AC-WC and HRS-WC Asphalt Mixtures

#### 3.3. Phase Angle of AC-WC and HRS-WC Asphalt Mixtures

#### 3.4. Dynamic Modulus Master Curve of AC-WC and HRS-WC Asphalt Mixtures

_{predicted}results that are closest to the E (f)

_{measured}value by minimizing the sum of square error values (SSE).

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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Physical Property | Specification | Value |
---|---|---|

Penetration at 25 °C (0.1 mm) | 60–79 | 66 |

Softening point (°C) | ≥48 | 53.5 |

Ductility (mm) | ≥100 | ≥100 |

Flash point (°C) | ≥232 | 270 |

Specific gravity | ≥1.0 | 1.07 |

Physical Property | Specification | Value |
---|---|---|

Bulk Specific Gravity | - | 2.59 |

SSD Specific Gravity | - | 2.70 |

Apparent Specific Gravity | - | 2.91 |

Water Absorption | ≤5% | 4.17% |

Sand Equivalent | ≥60% | 96.6% |

Physical Property | Specification | Value |
---|---|---|

Abrasion | ≤30% | 20.90% |

Bulk Specific Gravity | - | 2.49 |

SSD Specific Gravity | - | 2.50 |

Apparent Specific Gravity | - | 2.52 |

Water Absorption | ≤3% | 0.51% |

Marshall Properties | Unit | AC-WC | HRS-WC | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Spec | Actual | Spec | Actual | ||

Marshall Stability | Kg | ≥800 | 1412.31 | ≥800 | 1319.51 |

Flow | mm | 2 ≤ 4 | 3.57 | ≥3 | 3.77 |

VIM (Void in the mix) | % | 3 ≤ 5 | 4.54 | 4 ≤ 6 | 5.46 |

VMA (Void in mineral aggregate) | % | ≥14 | 17.53 | ≥18 | 19.61 |

VFWA (Void filled with asphalt) | % | ≥65 | 74.14 | ≥68 | 72.25 |

Marshall Quotient (MQ) | Kg/mm | ≥250 | 402.03 | ≥250 | 356.37 |

Density | gr/cm^{3} | 2.32 | 2.30 |

|E*|, MPa (Temperature 15 °C, Frequency 10 Hz) | |E*|, MPa (Temperature 45 °C, Frequency of 0.01 Hz) | ||
---|---|---|---|

AC-WC | HRS-WC | AC-WC | HRS-WC |

6780 | 3107 | 205 | 162 |

**Table 6.**Rutting and fatigue factors of AC-WC and HRS-WC mixtures at a reference temperature of 25 °C.

Rutting Factor = ǀE*ǀ/sin δ | Fatigue Factor = ǀE*ǀ × sin δ | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

AC-WC | HRS-WC | AC-WC | HRS-WC | ||||

f (Hz) | f (Hz) | f (Hz) | f (Hz) | ||||

1 | 10 | 1 | 10 | 1 | 10 | 1 | 10 |

4795 | 11947 | 2623 | 6040 | 1384 | 2086 | 757 | 1161 |

**Table 7.**Dynamic modulus of AC-WC asphalt mixture at a reference temperature 25 °C (with ${\left|{E}^{*}\right|}_{max}$ = 465,592.1 kPa and constants: δ = 5.35, β = −2.1558, γ = −1.701 and ∆Ea =165,238.8).

Test Temperature (°C) | f (Hz) | $\left|{\mathit{E}}^{*}\right|\text{}\left(\mathbf{MPa}\right)$ |
---|---|---|

15 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 3071.6 2939.3 2365.7 1122.9 |

25 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 2938.2 2361.3 1117.6 402.3 |

35 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 2419.2 1191.1 422.3 258.3 |

45 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 1343.3 468.2 266.3 231.2 |

**Table 8.**Dynamic modulus of the HRS-WC asphalt mixture at a reference temperature of 25 °C (with ${\left|{E}^{*}\right|}_{\mathrm{max}}$ = 464,566.9 kPa and constants: δ = 5.11, β = −0.7839, γ = −1.143 and $\Delta {E}_{a}$ = 148,300.6).

Test Temperature (°C) | f (Hz) | $\left|{\mathit{E}}^{*}\right|\left(\mathit{M}\mathit{P}\mathit{a}\right)$ |
---|---|---|

15 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 2740.9 2047.9 1083.7 444.2 |

25 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 2135.4 1173.2 484.3 232 |

35 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 1322.5 557.9 254.0 166.0 |

45 | 10 1 0.1 0.01 | 676.3 291.3 176.8 143.8 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Harnaeni, S.R.; Pramesti, F.P.; Budiarto, A.; Setyawan, A.; Khan, M.I.; Sutanto, M.H.
Study on Structural Performance of Asphalt Concrete and Hot Rolled Sheet Through Viscoelastic Characterization. *Materials* **2020**, *13*, 1133.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051133

**AMA Style**

Harnaeni SR, Pramesti FP, Budiarto A, Setyawan A, Khan MI, Sutanto MH.
Study on Structural Performance of Asphalt Concrete and Hot Rolled Sheet Through Viscoelastic Characterization. *Materials*. 2020; 13(5):1133.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051133

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Harnaeni, Senja Rum, Florentina Pungky Pramesti, Arif Budiarto, Ary Setyawan, Muhammad Imran Khan, and Muslich Hartadi Sutanto.
2020. "Study on Structural Performance of Asphalt Concrete and Hot Rolled Sheet Through Viscoelastic Characterization" *Materials* 13, no. 5: 1133.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051133