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Structure and Properties of High-Strength Ti Grade 4 Prepared by Severe Plastic Deformation and Subsequent Heat Treatment

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Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology in Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, Czech Republic
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Department of Physics of Materials, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague, Czech Republic
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Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR in Řež, Husinec-Řež 130, 250 68 Řež, Czech Republic
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European Spallation Source ERIC, 222 70 Lund, Sweden
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Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8, Czech Republic
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COMTES FHT, Department of Mechanical Testing and Thermophysical Measurement, Průmyslová 995, 334 41 Dobřany, Czech Republic
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Department of Low-Temperature Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-180 00 Prague 8, Czech Republic
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051116
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 26 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 3 March 2020
Severe plastic deformation represented by three passes in Conform SPD and subsequent rotary swaging was applied on Ti grade 4. This process caused extreme strengthening of material, accompanied by reduction of ductility. Mechanical properties of such material were then tuned by a suitable heat treatment. Measurements of in situ electrical resistance, in situ XRD and hardness indicated the appropriate temperature to be 450 °C for the heat treatment required to obtain desired mechanical properties. The optimal duration of annealing was stated to be 3 h. As was verified by neutron diffraction, SEM and TEM microstructure observation, the material underwent recrystallization during this heat treatment. That was documented by changes of the grain shape and evaluation of crystallite size, as well as of the reduction of internal stresses. In annealed state, the yield stress and ultimate tensile stress decreased form 1205 to 871 MPa and 1224 to 950 MPa, respectively, while the ductility increased from 7.8% to 25.1%. This study also shows that mechanical properties of Ti grade 4 processed by continual industrially applicable process (Conform SPD) are comparable with those obtained by ECAP. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ti grade 4; conform SPD; XRD; neutron diffraction; TEM; PAS Ti grade 4; conform SPD; XRD; neutron diffraction; TEM; PAS
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Michalcová, A.; Vojtěch, D.; Vavřík, J.; Bartha, K.; Beran, P.; Drahokoupil, J.; Džugan, J.; Palán, J.; Čížek, J.; Lejček, P. Structure and Properties of High-Strength Ti Grade 4 Prepared by Severe Plastic Deformation and Subsequent Heat Treatment. Materials 2020, 13, 1116.

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