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Article

Dissolution of Metals in Different Bromide-Based Systems: Electrochemical Measurements and Spectroscopic Investigations

1
Department of Cadastre, Civil Engineering and Environmental Engineering, “1 Decembrie 1918” University of Alba Iulia, 15-17 Unirii Street, 510009 Alba Iulia, Romania
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, 11 Arany Janos Street, 400028 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3
Physical and Chemical Analysis Department (RBRO/EQV-A), SC Robert Bosch SRL, Tetarom III Industrial Park, 1, Robert Bosch Street, Jucu Herghelie, 407350 Cluj, Romania
4
Department of Molecular and Biomolecular Physics, National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(16), 3630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163630
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 10 August 2020 / Accepted: 12 August 2020 / Published: 17 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metals and Their Alloys)
The dissolution of the main metals (Cu, Zn, Sn, Pb and Fe) found in waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) was investigated by electrochemical corrosion measurements (potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) in different bromide-based systems that could be used as lixiviants in hydrometallurgical route of metals recovery. The analysis of the corrosion products was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. All measurements showed that the addition of bromine in the electrolyte favors to great extents the dissolution process of all studied metals as compared to bromine-free electrolytes. In the investigated experimental conditions, the highest dissolution rates of the metals were obtained in acidic KBr solution containing 0.01 mol/L bromine and they decreased in the following order: Zn >> Sn > Pb > Fe > Cu. The XRD and XPS chemical assessment allowed the identification of the dissolution products formed on the metallic surfaces after exposure to the electrolytes. They consisted mainly of oxides in the case of Cu, Zn, Sn and Fe, while the presence of PbBr2 was also noticed on the lead surface. Based on the results of EIS and surface investigations, several models explaining the corrosion behavior of the metals were proposed and discussed. The obtained results demonstrate that all studied metals could be successfully leached using brominated solutions, providing a viable alternative for the selective and efficient recovery of the base metals from WPCBs through a multi-step hydrometallurgical processing route. View Full-Text
Keywords: dissolution of metals; metals recovery; bromide-based electrolytes; potentiodynamic polarization; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; XPS; XRD dissolution of metals; metals recovery; bromide-based electrolytes; potentiodynamic polarization; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; XPS; XRD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Varvara, S.; Dorneanu, S.-A.; Okos, A.; Muresan, L.M.; Bostan, R.; Popa, M.; Marconi, D.; Ilea, P. Dissolution of Metals in Different Bromide-Based Systems: Electrochemical Measurements and Spectroscopic Investigations. Materials 2020, 13, 3630. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163630

AMA Style

Varvara S, Dorneanu S-A, Okos A, Muresan LM, Bostan R, Popa M, Marconi D, Ilea P. Dissolution of Metals in Different Bromide-Based Systems: Electrochemical Measurements and Spectroscopic Investigations. Materials. 2020; 13(16):3630. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163630

Chicago/Turabian Style

Varvara, Simona, Sorin-Aurel Dorneanu, Alexandru Okos, Liana Maria Muresan, Roxana Bostan, Maria Popa, Daniel Marconi, and Petru Ilea. 2020. "Dissolution of Metals in Different Bromide-Based Systems: Electrochemical Measurements and Spectroscopic Investigations" Materials 13, no. 16: 3630. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13163630

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