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Open AccessArticle

Wire-Based Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Using Electron Beam Technique

Institute of Materials Science, Joining and Forming, Graz University of Technology, Kopernikusgasse 24, 8010 Graz, Austria
Liebherr-Werk Telfs GmbH, 6410 Telfs, Austria
Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa
Research Support Services, University of Malta, 2080 Msida, Malta
Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden
Department of Engineering Science, University West, 46132 Trollhättan, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3310;
Received: 6 June 2020 / Revised: 18 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 24 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electron Beam Processing of Materials)
Electron beam freeform fabrication is a wire feed direct energy deposition additive manufacturing process, where the vacuum condition ensures excellent shielding against the atmosphere and enables processing of highly reactive materials. In this work, this technique is applied for the α + β-titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V to determine suitable process parameter for robust building. The correlation between dimensions and the dilution of single beads based on selected process parameters, leads to an overlapping distance in the range of 70–75% of the bead width, resulting in a multi-bead layer with a uniform height and with a linear build-up rate. Moreover, the stacking of layers with different numbers of tracks using an alternating symmetric welding sequence allows the manufacturing of simple structures like walls and blocks. Microscopy investigations reveal that the primary structure consists of epitaxial grown columnar prior β-grains, with some randomly scattered macro and micropores. The developed microstructure consists of a mixture of martensitic and finer α-lamellar structure with a moderate and uniform hardness of 334 HV, an ultimate tensile strength of 953 MPa and rather low fracture elongation of 4.5%. A subsequent stress relief heat treatment leads to a uniform hardness distribution and an extended fracture elongation of 9.5%, with a decrease of the ultimate strength to 881 MPa due to the fine α-lamellar structure produced during the heat treatment. Residual stresses measured by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction shows after deposition 200–450 MPa in tension in the longitudinal direction, while the stresses reach almost zero when the stress relief treatment is carried out. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; titanium alloys; electron beam; wire feed process; residual stresses; mechanical properties additive manufacturing; titanium alloys; electron beam; wire feed process; residual stresses; mechanical properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pixner, F.; Warchomicka, F.; Peter, P.; Steuwer, A.; Colliander, M.H.; Pederson, R.; Enzinger, N. Wire-Based Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Using Electron Beam Technique. Materials 2020, 13, 3310.

AMA Style

Pixner F, Warchomicka F, Peter P, Steuwer A, Colliander MH, Pederson R, Enzinger N. Wire-Based Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Using Electron Beam Technique. Materials. 2020; 13(15):3310.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pixner, Florian; Warchomicka, Fernando; Peter, Patrick; Steuwer, Axel; Colliander, Magnus H.; Pederson, Robert; Enzinger, Norbert. 2020. "Wire-Based Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Using Electron Beam Technique" Materials 13, no. 15: 3310.

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