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Article

Effect of Curing Methods on Shrinkage Development in 3D-Printed Concrete

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Al. Piastów 50, 70-311 Szczecin, Poland
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Al. Piastów 19, 70-310 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(11), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112590
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 6 June 2020
Technological developments in construction have led to an increase in the use of 3D modelling using CAD environments. The popularity of this approach has increased in tandem with developments in industry branches which use 3D printers to print concrete based printing materials in construction, as these allow freedom in shaping the dimensions of supporting elements. One of the biggest challenges for researchers working on this highly innovative technology is that of cement material shrinkage. This article presents the findings of research on an original method of measuring deformations caused by shrinkage in 3D-printed concrete elements. It also discusses the results of tests on base mixes, as well as comparisons between the influence of internal and external curing methods on the development of deformations and their final outcomes. Furthermore, the article discusses differences between deformations formed after seven days of hardening without curing, with those which occur when two common, traditional concrete curing methods are used: foil insulation and shrinkage reducing admixtures. In addition, the article examines the effects of internal curing on the 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day mechanical properties of concrete, in accordance with EN 196-1 and EN 12390-2. Studies have shown that the optimal amount of shrinkage reducing admixtures is 4% (in relation to the mass of cement), resulting in a reduction in total shrinkage of 23%. The use of a shrinkage reducing admixture in 3D-printed concrete does not affect their strength after 28 days, but slows the strength development during the first 7 days. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D Concrete Printing; curing conditions; shrinkage; digital construction; additive manufacturing 3D Concrete Printing; curing conditions; shrinkage; digital construction; additive manufacturing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Federowicz, K.; Kaszyńska, M.; Zieliński, A.; Hoffmann, M. Effect of Curing Methods on Shrinkage Development in 3D-Printed Concrete. Materials 2020, 13, 2590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112590

AMA Style

Federowicz K, Kaszyńska M, Zieliński A, Hoffmann M. Effect of Curing Methods on Shrinkage Development in 3D-Printed Concrete. Materials. 2020; 13(11):2590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112590

Chicago/Turabian Style

Federowicz, Karol, Maria Kaszyńska, Adam Zieliński, and Marcin Hoffmann. 2020. "Effect of Curing Methods on Shrinkage Development in 3D-Printed Concrete" Materials 13, no. 11: 2590. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13112590

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