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Article

Releasing Behavior of Lipopolysaccharide from Gelatin Modulates Inflammation, Cellular Senescence, and Bone Formation in Critical-Sized Bone Defects in Rat Calvaria

1
Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 1-5-17, Otemae, Chuo-ku, Osaka 540-0008, Japan
2
Institute of Dental Research, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuhahanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
3
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
4
Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Kuzuhahanazonocho, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(1), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010095
Received: 27 November 2019 / Revised: 17 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased Polymers)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a well-known strong inducer of inflammation. However, there is little information regarding how LPS-release behavior affects cellular senescence at the affected area. In this paper, we demonstrate that a vacuum-heating technique (dehydrothermal treatment) can be utilized to prepare an LPS sustained-release gelatin sponge (LS-G). LPS sustained release from gelatin leads to the long-term existence of senescent cells in critical-sized bone defects in rat calvaria. Three types of gelatin sponges were prepared in this study: a medical-grade gelatin sponge with extremely low LPS levels (MG), LS-G, and a LPS rapid-release gelatin sponge (LR-G). Histological (H-E) and immunohistochemical (COX-2, p16, and p21) staining were utilized to evaluate inflammatory reactions and cellular senescence one to three weeks after surgery. Soft X-ray imaging was utilized to estimate new bone formation in the defects. The LR-G led to stronger swelling and COX-2 expression in defects compared to the MG and LS-G at 1 week. Despite a small inflammatory reaction, LS-G implantation led to the long-term existence of senescent cells and hampered bone formation compared to the MG and LR-G. These results suggest that vacuum heating is a viable technique for preparing different types of materials for releasing bacterial components, which is helpful for developing disease models for elucidating cellular senescence and bone regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; inflammation; cellular senescence; bone formation lipopolysaccharide; inflammation; cellular senescence; bone formation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, J.; Honda, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Matsumoto, N. Releasing Behavior of Lipopolysaccharide from Gelatin Modulates Inflammation, Cellular Senescence, and Bone Formation in Critical-Sized Bone Defects in Rat Calvaria. Materials 2020, 13, 95. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010095

AMA Style

Zhao J, Honda Y, Tanaka T, Hashimoto Y, Matsumoto N. Releasing Behavior of Lipopolysaccharide from Gelatin Modulates Inflammation, Cellular Senescence, and Bone Formation in Critical-Sized Bone Defects in Rat Calvaria. Materials. 2020; 13(1):95. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010095

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhao, Jianxin; Honda, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Tomonari; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Naoyuki. 2020. "Releasing Behavior of Lipopolysaccharide from Gelatin Modulates Inflammation, Cellular Senescence, and Bone Formation in Critical-Sized Bone Defects in Rat Calvaria" Materials 13, no. 1: 95. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010095

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