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Use of Ladle Furnace Slag and Other Industrial By-Products to Encapsulate Chloride in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

1
School of Civil and Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2
Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(6), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060925
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 17 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete and Construction Materials)
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Abstract

Municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) is a hazardous by-product of waste incineration. The objective of this research is to encapsulate the chloride in MSWIFA and to develop a utilizable construction material using MSWIFA, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), ladle furnace slag (LFS), and gypsum. A secondary objective of the work is to explain the hydration and encapsulation mechanisms in this material system using isothermal calorimetry (IC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ion chromatography (IC). The predominant hydration products are ettringite, Friedel’s salt, and C-S-H gel, with Friedel’s salt and C-S-H dominating in systems high in LFS and ettringite and C-S-H gel dominating in systems low in LFS. The chloride encapsulation showed a strong correlation with the Friedel’s salt amount; however, some encapsulation was also likely due to physical binding in the C-S-H gel. In a system with 30% MSWIFA (by mass), the optimal amount of LFS for strength and chloride encapsulation is 20%–40% (by mass). View Full-Text
Keywords: MSWIFA; ladle furnace slag; Friedel’s salt; chloride encapsulation MSWIFA; ladle furnace slag; Friedel’s salt; chloride encapsulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, Y.; Ni, W.; Suraneni, P. Use of Ladle Furnace Slag and Other Industrial By-Products to Encapsulate Chloride in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash. Materials 2019, 12, 925.

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