Evaluation of Joint Formation and Mechanical Performance of the AA7075-T6/CFRP Spot Joints Produced by Frictional Heat
2. Friction Spot Joining (FSpJ)
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6
3.2. Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polyphenylene Sulfide (CF-PPS)
3.3. Experimental Procedure
3.3.1. Joining Procedure
3.3.2. Microstructural Analysis
3.3.3. Mechanical Testing
3.3.4. Fracture Surface Analysis
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Temperature Evolution
4.2. Joint Formation
4.3. Quasi-static Mechanical Performance
4.4. Fracture Mechanisms
- Three main bonding mechanisms were identified at the metal–composite interface: macro- and micro-mechanical interlocking and adhesion forces. The macro-mechanical interlocking was provided by the plastic deformation of the aluminum (metallic nub) into the composite part. The micro-mechanical interlocking at the metal–composite interface was provided by the entrapment of the PPS matrix and carbon fibers into the aluminum surface. Additionally, the reconsolidated molten PPS matrix led to the adhesion forces between the joining parts.
- Ultimate lap shear force of up to 4068 ± 184 N was achieved in this study. The joining force showed a significant influence on the nub geometry and hence on the ULSF of the joints. Intermediate joining force (6 kN in this study) originated a metallic deformation in the shape of two rings inserted into the composite part. This geometry effectively interlocked the aluminum and the composite part, thereby maximizing the volume of the composite entrapped into the nub (84 ± 8 mm3) and consequently the ULSF of the joint.
- A qualitative comparison with other state-of-the-art joining technologies for hybrid structures demonstrated that the friction spot joints exhibit superior/similar strength than/to the concurrent joining technologies for hybrid structures.
- The fracture surface of the joints showed that the bonding area could be divided into different zones. Three bonding zones were identified as the following: Plastically Deformed Zone (PDZ), Transition Zone (TZ), and Adhesion Zone (AZ), as previously reported in the literature for other combinations of materials joined with FSpJ.
- A mixture of adhesive–cohesive failure mode was identified, while cohesive failure was dominant. A combination of brittle and ductile micro-mechanisms of failure was observed by SEM analysis.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Tensile Strength (TL * direction) (MPa)||Yield Strength (TL * direction) (MPa)||Elongation (%)||Incipient Melting Temperature (°C)||Thermal Conductivity (W m−1 K−1)||Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 20–300°C (µm m−1 °C−1)|
|Tensile Strength (warp/weft) (MPa)||In-Plane Shear Strength (MPa)||Glass Transition Temperature—Tg (°C)||Melting Temperature—Tm (°C)||Thermal Conductivity (W m−1 K−1)||Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, 23–300 °C (µm m−1 °C−1)|
|Condition||Rotational Speed (rpm)||Plunge Depth (mm)||Joining Time (s)||Joining Force (kN)|
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Manente André, N.; F. dos Santos, J.; T. Amancio-Filho, S. Evaluation of Joint Formation and Mechanical Performance of the AA7075-T6/CFRP Spot Joints Produced by Frictional Heat. Materials 2019, 12, 891. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060891
Manente André N, F. dos Santos J, T. Amancio-Filho S. Evaluation of Joint Formation and Mechanical Performance of the AA7075-T6/CFRP Spot Joints Produced by Frictional Heat. Materials. 2019; 12(6):891. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060891Chicago/Turabian Style
Manente André, Natalia, Jorge F. dos Santos, and Sergio T. Amancio-Filho. 2019. "Evaluation of Joint Formation and Mechanical Performance of the AA7075-T6/CFRP Spot Joints Produced by Frictional Heat" Materials 12, no. 6: 891. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060891