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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

PffBT4T-2OD Based Solar Cells with Aryl-Substituted N-Methyl-Fulleropyrrolidine Acceptors

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IPC/i3N—Institute for Polymers and Composites, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
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QOPNA & LAQV-REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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LEPABE, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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CQE and Departamento de Engenharia Química, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
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CIQUP, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, w/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Physics and i3N—Institute for Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244100
Received: 3 November 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 December 2019 / Published: 8 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Organic Photovoltaics)
Novel C60 and C70 N-methyl-fulleropyrrolidine derivatives, containing both electron withdrawing and electron donating substituent groups, were synthesized by the well-known Prato reaction. The corresponding highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry, from the onset oxidation and reduction potentials, respectively. Some of the novel fullerenes have higher LUMO levels than the standards PC61BM and PC71BM. When tested in PffBT4T-2OD based polymer solar cells, with the standard architecture ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active-Layer/Ca/Al, these fullerenes do not bring about any efficiency improvements compared to the standard PC71BM system, however they show how the electronic nature of the different substituents strongly affects the efficiency of the corresponding organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. The functionalization of C70 yields a mixture of regioisomers and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that these have systematically different electronic properties. This electronic inhomogeneity is likely responsible for the lower performance observed in devices containing C70 derivatives. These results help to understand how new fullerene acceptors can affect the performance of OPV devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic photovoltaics; fullerene derivatives; electron acceptors; fulleropyrrolidine acceptors; regioisomers of C70 mono-adducts organic photovoltaics; fullerene derivatives; electron acceptors; fulleropyrrolidine acceptors; regioisomers of C70 mono-adducts
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Gaspar, H.; Figueira, F.; Strutyński, K.; Melle-Franco, M.; Ivanou, D.; Tomé, J.P.C.; Pereira, C.M.; Pereira, L.; Mendes, A.; Viana, J.C.; Bernardo, G. PffBT4T-2OD Based Solar Cells with Aryl-Substituted N-Methyl-Fulleropyrrolidine Acceptors. Materials 2019, 12, 4100.

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