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Open AccessArticle

Structural, Compositional, and Mechanical Characterization of WxCryFe1−x−y Layers Relevant to Nuclear Fusion, Obtained with TVA Technology

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Low Temperature Plasma and Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Departments, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Bucharest, Romania
2
Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele, Romania
3
Nanoscale Condensed Matter Department, National Institute for Material Physics, 077125 Bucharest, Romania
4
Advanced Surface Processing and Analysis by Vacuum Technologies Department, National Institute for Optoelectronics, 077125 Bucharest, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244072
Received: 12 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
Reduced activation ferritic and martensitic steel like EUROFER (9Cr-1W) are considered as potential structural materials for the first wall of the future next-generation DEMOnstration Power Station (DEMO) fusion reactor and as a reference material for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) test blanket module. The primary motivation of this work is to study the re-deposition of the main constituent materials of EUROFER, namely tungsten (W), iron (Fe), and chromium (Cr), in a DEMO type reactor by producing and analyzing complex WxCryFe1−x−y layers. The composite layers were produced in laboratory using the thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) method, and the morphology, crystalline structure, elemental composition, and mechanical properties were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF), and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES), as well as nanoindentation and tribology measurements. The results show that the layer morphology is textured and is highly dependent on sample positioning during the deposition process. The formation of polycrystalline WxCryFe1−x−y was observed for all samples with the exception of the sample positioned closer to Fe anode during deposition. The crystalline grain size dimension varied between 10 and 20 nm. The composition and thickness of the layers were strongly influenced by the in-situ coating position, and the elemental depth profiles show a non-uniform distribution of Fe and Cr in the layers. The highest hardness was measured for the sample positioned near the Cr anode, 6.84 GPa, and the lowest was 4.84 GPa, measured for the sample positioned near the W anode. The tribology measurements showed an abrasive sliding wear behavior for most of the samples with a reduction of the friction coefficient with the increase of the normal load. View Full-Text
Keywords: TVA method; WxCryFe1−x−y layers; EUROFER; micro-XRF TVA method; WxCryFe1−x−y layers; EUROFER; micro-XRF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lungu, M.; Porosnicu, I.; Dinca, P.; Velea, A.; Baiasu, F.; Butoi, B.; Pompilian, O.G.; Staicu, C.; Anca Constantina, P.; Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.; Tiseanu, I. Structural, Compositional, and Mechanical Characterization of WxCryFe1−x−y Layers Relevant to Nuclear Fusion, Obtained with TVA Technology. Materials 2019, 12, 4072. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244072

AMA Style

Lungu M, Porosnicu I, Dinca P, Velea A, Baiasu F, Butoi B, Pompilian OG, Staicu C, Anca Constantina P, Porosnicu C, Lungu C, Tiseanu I. Structural, Compositional, and Mechanical Characterization of WxCryFe1−x−y Layers Relevant to Nuclear Fusion, Obtained with TVA Technology. Materials. 2019; 12(24):4072. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244072

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lungu, Mihail; Porosnicu, Ioana; Dinca, Paul; Velea, Alin; Baiasu, Flaviu; Butoi, Bogdan; Pompilian, Oana G.; Staicu, Cornel; Anca Constantina, Parau; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Lungu, Cristian; Tiseanu, Ion. 2019. "Structural, Compositional, and Mechanical Characterization of WxCryFe1−x−y Layers Relevant to Nuclear Fusion, Obtained with TVA Technology" Materials 12, no. 24: 4072. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244072

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