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Open AccessArticle

Fabrication and Histological Evaluation of Porous Carbonate Apatite Block from Gypsum Block Containing Spherical Phenol Resin as a Porogen

1
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2
Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(23), 3997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12233997
Received: 18 October 2019 / Revised: 27 November 2019 / Accepted: 28 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
The utility of carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) as a bone substitute has been demonstrated. The feasibility of fabricating macroporous CO3Ap was evaluated through a two-step dissolution–precipitation reaction using gypsum as the precursor and spherical phenol resin as the porogen. Porogen-containing gypsum was heated to burn out the porogen and to fabricate macroporous structures. Gypsum transformed into CaCO3 upon immersion in a sodium carbonate solution, while maintaining its macroporous structure. Next, CaCO3 transformed into CO3Ap upon immersion in a Na2HPO4 solution while maintaining its macroporous structure. The utility of the macroporous CO3Ap for histologically reconstructing bone defects was evaluated in rabbit femurs. After 4 weeks, a much larger bone was formed inside the macroporous CO3Ap than that inside non-macroporous CO3Ap and macroporous hydroxyapatite (HAp). A larger amount of bone was observed inside non-macroporous CO3Ap than inside macroporous HAp. The bone defects were completely reconstructed within 12 weeks using macroporous CO3Ap. In conclusion, macroporous CO3Ap has good potential as an ideal bone substitute. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonate apatite; porous structure; bone regeneration; bone graft; osteoconduction carbonate apatite; porous structure; bone regeneration; bone graft; osteoconduction
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Sakemi, Y.; Hayashi, K.; Tsuchiya, A.; Nakashima, Y.; Ishikawa, K. Fabrication and Histological Evaluation of Porous Carbonate Apatite Block from Gypsum Block Containing Spherical Phenol Resin as a Porogen. Materials 2019, 12, 3997.

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