- freely available
Materials 2019, 12(21), 3635; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12213635
2. Materials and Methods
- —maximum microhardness of the surface layer after centrifugal shot peening,
- —microhardness before shot peening.
3.1. Surface Roughness
3.2. Microstructure and Microhardness
3.3. XRD Tests
3.4. Residual Stress
- The use of centrifugal shot peening for finish machining of laser-cut C45 steel parts allowed for obtaining a four-fold reduction in the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz. Centrifugal shot peening diminished the differences in Ra and Rz between the beam entrance zone and the beam exit zone.
- An increase in the tangential speed of the tool vg resulted in a decrease in roughness parameters, while an increase in feed rate vf had the opposite effect, with the changes being more pronounced for the variable vg.
- Centrifugal shot peening allowed for changing the nature of the bearing curve from a degressive–progressive curve to a degressive curve. A significant decline in Rpk, Rk, and Rvk parameters was observed as compared to the values that were obtained after laser cutting.
- Centrifugal shot peening resulted in an up to 14-fold increase in the material ratio of the roughness profile as compared to the value obtained after laser cutting.
- Peened workpieces had an up to 16% higher microhardness (vg = 835 m/min, vf = 1365 mm/min) and a 15 μm to 58 μm deep hardened layer.
- As the surface of a workpiece was impacted by shot during centrifugal shot peening, oxide phases, which are combustion products, were blasted off and sheared off the surface, which caused the removal of Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and Fe0.9 oxides.
- In the surface layer of the specimens, compressive residual stresses were formed during centrifugal shot peening, whose absolute maximum value varied from 450 MPa to 740 MPa. The stresses resided at a depth of 0.25–0.40 mm, depending on the technological parameters of the peening process.
- As the tangential speed of the peening head vg grew to 835 m/min, an increase was observed in the absolute value of compressive residual stresses and the depth of their accumulation; a further increase in tangential speed only increased the depth of the occurrence of compressive residual stresses. An increase in feed rate vf caused a decrease in the absolute value of compressive residual stresses, but it did not significantly affect the depth of accumulation of residual stresses.
- The results of the centrifugal shot peening experiments demonstrate that this cold working method can be successfully used with CNC machine tools. The CNC machine tools are equipped with control systems that can be used to guide the tool along a designated path, which allows for processing parts with complex shapes.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Chemical Composition, (%)|
|Yield point||Re = 430 MPa|
|Tensile strength||Rm = 740 MPa|
|Number in the Base|
|Chemical Formula||Lattice Parameters (nm)||Angles (°)|
|04-009-8436||Fe3O4||a = b = c = 0.8403||α = β = γ = 90°|
|04-006-9058||Fe2O3||a = b = 0.5350|
c = 1.3720
|α = β = 90°|
γ = 120°
|04-001-9267||Fe0.9O||a = b = c = 0.4298||α = β = γ = 90°|
|Number in the Base|
|Chemical Formula||Lattice Parameters (nm)||Angles (°)|
|04-002-1061||Fe–α||a = b = c = 0.2862||α = β = γ = 90°|
|00-044-1289||C0.14Fe1.86||a = b = 0.2846|
c = 0.3053
|α = β = γ = 90°|
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