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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

PGlu-Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose Improves Mechanical Properties, Biocompatibility, and Mineralization of Polyester-Based Composites

1
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 199004, Russia
2
St. Petersburg Research Institute of Phtysiopulmonology, St. Petersburg 194064, Russia
3
Interregional Laboratory Center, St. Petersburg 192283, Russia
4
Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194064, Russia
5
Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
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Department of Applied Mathematics, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond str., London, ON N5A 5B7, Canada
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The Centre for Advanced Materials and Biomaterials Research, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond str., London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
8
Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond str., London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203435
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Polysaccharide Biomaterials)
The development of biocompatible composite materials is in high demand in many fields such as biomedicine, bioengineering, and biotechnology. In this study, two series of poly (D,L-lactide) and poly (ε-caprolactone)-based films filled with neat and modified with poly (glutamic acid) (PGlu) nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were prepared. An analysis of scanning electron and atomic force microscopies’ results shows that the modification of NCC with poly (glutamic acid) favored the better distribution of the nanofiller in the polymer matrix. Investigating the ability of the developed materials to attract and retain calcium ions led to the conclusion that composites containing NCC modified with PGlu induced better mineralization from model solutions than composites containing neat NCC. Moreover, compared to unmodified NCC, functionalization with PGlu improved the mechanical properties of composite films. The subcutaneous implantation of these composite materials into the backs of rats and the further histological investigation of neighboring tissues revealed the better biocompatibility of polyester materials filled with NCC–PGlu. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose; composite films; polyester materials; mechanical properties; biocompatibility nanocrystalline cellulose; composite films; polyester materials; mechanical properties; biocompatibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stepanova, M.; Averianov, I.; Serdobintsev, M.; Gofman, I.; Blum, N.; Semenova, N.; Nashchekina, Y.; Vinogradova, T.; Korzhikov-Vlakh, V.; Karttunen, M.; Korzhikova-Vlakh, E. PGlu-Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose Improves Mechanical Properties, Biocompatibility, and Mineralization of Polyester-Based Composites. Materials 2019, 12, 3435. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203435

AMA Style

Stepanova M, Averianov I, Serdobintsev M, Gofman I, Blum N, Semenova N, Nashchekina Y, Vinogradova T, Korzhikov-Vlakh V, Karttunen M, Korzhikova-Vlakh E. PGlu-Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose Improves Mechanical Properties, Biocompatibility, and Mineralization of Polyester-Based Composites. Materials. 2019; 12(20):3435. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stepanova, Mariia; Averianov, Ilia; Serdobintsev, Mikhail; Gofman, Iosif; Blum, Natalya; Semenova, Natalya; Nashchekina, Yuliya; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Korzhikov-Vlakh, Viktor; Karttunen, Mikko; Korzhikova-Vlakh, Evgenia. 2019. "PGlu-Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose Improves Mechanical Properties, Biocompatibility, and Mineralization of Polyester-Based Composites" Materials 12, no. 20: 3435. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203435

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