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Open AccessArticle

Synthesis and Post-Annealing of Cu2ZnSnS4 Absorber Layers Based on Oleylamine/1-dodecanethiol

1
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 30123 Trento, Italy
2
Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome, Italy
3
Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies IFN -National Research Council CNR CSMFO Lab. & Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK—Centro Materiali e Microsistemi CMM, via alla Cascata 56/C, 38123 Trento, Italy
4
Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(20), 3320; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12203320
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 8 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals in oleylamine (OLA) and 1-dodecanethiol (1-DDT) solvents were successfully prepared via hot-injection method, to produce inks for the deposition of absorber layers in photovoltaic cells. In this process, 1-DDT acts as a coordinating ligand to control the nucleation and growth of CZTS nanocrystals, whereas lower amounts of OLA promote a homogeneous growth of the grains in the absorber layer. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed both tetragonal and hexagonal phases of CTZS in films obtained after soft thermal treatments (labeled TT0). In particular, 1-DDT is responsible for the formation of a greater percentage of the hexagonal phase (ZnS-wurtzite type) than that formed when only OLA is used. The thermal treatments have been varied from 500 °C to 600 °C for improving crystallization and eliminating secondary phases. Both features are known to promote CZTS thin films with band gap values typical of CZTS (1.5–1.6 eV) and suitable resistivity. This study let to compare also the CZTS post-annealing without (TT1) and with sulfur vapor (TT2) in a tubular furnace. Only tetragonal CZTS phase is observed in the XRD pattern of CZTS thin films after TT2. A small presence of localized residues of secondary phases on the same samples was revealed by μRaman measurements. The best values of band gap (1.50 eV) and resistivity (1.05 ohm.cm) were obtained after thermal treatment at 500 °C, which is suitable for absorber layer in photovoltaic application. View Full-Text
Keywords: kesterite; hot-injection; 1-dodecanethiol; nanocrystal; grain growth kesterite; hot-injection; 1-dodecanethiol; nanocrystal; grain growth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ataollahi, N.; Bazerla, F.; Malerba, C.; Chiappini, A.; Ferrari, M.; Di Maggio, R.; Scardi, P. Synthesis and Post-Annealing of Cu2ZnSnS4 Absorber Layers Based on Oleylamine/1-dodecanethiol. Materials 2019, 12, 3320.

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