In order to study the direct shear properties of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) structures, 15 Z-shaped monolithic placement specimens (MPSs) and 12 Z-shaped waterjet treated specimens (WJTSs) were tested to study the shear behavior and failure modes. The effects of steel fiber shape, steel fiber volume fraction and interface treatment on the direct shear properties of UHPC were investigated. The test results demonstrate that the MPSs were reinforced with steel fibers and underwent ductile failure. The ultimate load of the MPS is about 166.9% of the initial cracking load. However, the WJTSs failed in a typical brittle mode. Increasing the fiber volume fraction significantly improves the shear strength, which can reach 24.72 MPa. The steel fiber type has little effect on the shear strength and ductility, while increasing the length of steel fibers improves its ductility and slightly reduces the shear strength. The direct shear strength of the WJTSs made from 16 mm hooked-type steel fibers can reach 9.15 MPa, which is 2.47 times the direct shear strength of the specimens without fibers. Finally, an interaction formula for the shear and compressive strength was proposed on the basis of the experimental results, to predict the shear load-carrying capacity of the cast-in-place UHPC structures.
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