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3D Printing of Bioceramic Scaffolds—Barriers to the Clinical Translation: From Promise to Reality, and Future Perspectives

Biomaterials Design and Tissue Engineering Lab, School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Kang Lin and Rakib Sheikh have contributed equally in writing the manuscript.
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172660
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 17 August 2019 / Accepted: 19 August 2019 / Published: 21 August 2019
In this review, we summarize the challenges of the three-dimensional (3D) printing of porous bioceramics and their translational hurdles to clinical applications. The state-of-the-art of the major 3D printing techniques (powder-based and slurry-based), their limitations and key processing parameters are discussed in detail. The significant roadblocks that prevent implementation of 3D printed bioceramics in tissue engineering strategies, and medical applications are outlined, and the future directions where new research may overcome the limitations are proposed. In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for a nanoscale control in 3D fabrication of bioceramic scaffolds via emerging techniques such as digital light processing, two-photon polymerization, or large area maskless photopolymerization. However, these techniques are still in a developmental stage and not capable of fabrication of large-sized bioceramic scaffolds; thus, there is a lack of sufficient data to evaluate their contribution. This review will also not cover polymer matrix composites reinforced with particulate bioceramics, hydrogels reinforced with particulate bioceramics, polymers coated with bioceramics and non-porous bioceramics. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioceramics; bioactive ceramics; 3D printing; additive manufacturing; bone tissue engineering; bioprinting; in-situ bioprinting; clinical translation; bone scaffolds bioceramics; bioactive ceramics; 3D printing; additive manufacturing; bone tissue engineering; bioprinting; in-situ bioprinting; clinical translation; bone scaffolds
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Lin, K.; Sheikh, R.; Romanazzo, S.; Roohani, I. 3D Printing of Bioceramic Scaffolds—Barriers to the Clinical Translation: From Promise to Reality, and Future Perspectives. Materials 2019, 12, 2660.

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