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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Analytical Thermal Modeling of Metal Additive Manufacturing by Heat Sink Solution

1
Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2
The Boeing Company, Huntsville, AL 35824, USA
3
Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, NW, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162568
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-scale Modeling of Materials and Structures)
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Abstract

Metal additive manufacturing can produce geometrically complex parts with effective cost. The high thermal gradients due to the repeatedly rapid heat and solidification cause defects in the produced parts, such as cracks, porosity, undesired residual stress, and part distortion. Different techniques were employed for temperature investigation. Experimental measurement and finite element method-based numerical models are limited by the restricted accessibility and expensive computational cost, respectively. The available physics-based analytical model has promising short computational efficiency without resorting to finite element method or any iteration-based simulations. However, the heat transfer boundary condition cannot be considered without the involvement of finite element method or iteration-based simulations, which significantly reduces the computational efficiency, and thus the usefulness of the developed model. This work presents an explicit and closed-form solution, namely heat sink solution, to consider the heat transfer boundary condition. The heat sink solution was developed from the moving point heat source solution based on heat transfer of convection and radiation. The part boundary is mathematically discretized into many heats sinks due to the non-uniform temperature distribution, which causes non-uniform heat loss. The temperature profiles, thermal gradients, and temperature-affected material properties are calculated and presented. Good agreements were observed upon validation against experimental molten pool measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: closed-form heat sink solution; heat transfer boundary condition; analytical modeling; powder bed metal additive manufacturing closed-form heat sink solution; heat transfer boundary condition; analytical modeling; powder bed metal additive manufacturing
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Ning, J.; Sievers, D.E.; Garmestani, H.; Liang, S.Y. Analytical Thermal Modeling of Metal Additive Manufacturing by Heat Sink Solution. Materials 2019, 12, 2568.

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