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Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Composites

Department of Biomaterials and Composites, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Materials 2019, 12(13), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132077
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide: Synthesis, Reduction, and Frontier Applications)
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Abstract

Graphene family materials (GFM) are currently considered to be one of the most interesting nanomaterials with a wide range of application. They can also be used as modifiers of polymer matrices to develop composite materials with favorable properties. In this study, hybrid nanocomposites based on chitosan (CS) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were fabricated for potential use in bone tissue engineering. CS/rGO hydrogels were prepared by simultaneous reduction and composite formation in acetic acid or lactic acid and crosslinked with a natural agent—tannic acid (TAc). A broad spectrum of research methods was applied in order to thoroughly characterize both the components and the composite systems, i.e., X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffractometry, Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, ninhydrin assay, mechanical testing, in vitro degradation and bioactivity study, wettability, and, finally, cytocompatibility. The composites formed through the self-assembly of CS chains and exfoliated rGO sheets. Obtained results allowed also to conclude that the type of solvent used impacts the polymer structure and its ability to interact with rGO sheets and the mechanical properties of the composites. Both rGO and TAc acted as crosslinkers of the polymer chains. This study shows that the developed materials demonstrate the potential for use in bone tissue engineering. The next step should be their detailed biological examinations. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; chitosan; lactic acid; acetic acid; tannic acid; hydroxyapatite graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; chitosan; lactic acid; acetic acid; tannic acid; hydroxyapatite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kosowska, K.; Domalik-Pyzik, P.; Krok-Borkowicz, M.; Chłopek, J. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Composites. Materials 2019, 12, 2077.

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