Comparative Study on Constitutive Models for 21-4N Heat Resistant Steel during High Temperature Deformation
College of Mechanical Engineering, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063210, China
National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
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The Gleeble-1500D thermal simulation test machine was used to conduct the isothermal compression test on 21-4N at the strain rate (
) of 0.01–10 s−1
, the deformation temperature (T
) of 1273–1453 K and the maximum deformation is 0.916. The data of the stress-strain (σ
) were obtained. Based on the σ
data, the Johnson-Cook (J-C), modified J-C, Arrhenius and Back-Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) models were established. The accuracy of four models were verified, analyzed and compared. The results show that J-C model has a higher accuracy only under reference deformation conditions. When the deformation condition changes greatly, the accuracy of J-C model is significantly reduced. The coupling effect of T
of modified J-C model is considered, and the prediction accuracy is greatly improved The Arrhenius model introduces Zener-Hollomon (Z) to represent the coupling effect of T
, it has a fairly high prediction accuracy. And it can predict flow stress (σ
) accurately at different conditions. The accuracy of BP-ANN model is the highest, but its learning rate is low, the learning and memory are unstable. It has no memory for the weights and thresholds of the completed training. So, there are certain limitations of it in use. Finally, a Finite Element Method (FEM) of the isothermal compression experiment for four models were established, and the distribution of the equivalent stress field, equivalent strain field and temperature field with the deformation degree of 60% were obtained.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Li, Y.; Ji, H.; Cai, Z.; Tang, X.; Li, Y.; Liu, J. Comparative Study on Constitutive Models for 21-4N Heat Resistant Steel during High Temperature Deformation. Materials 2019, 12, 1893.
Li Y, Ji H, Cai Z, Tang X, Li Y, Liu J. Comparative Study on Constitutive Models for 21-4N Heat Resistant Steel during High Temperature Deformation. Materials. 2019; 12(12):1893.
Li, Yiming; Ji, Hongchao; Cai, Zhongman; Tang, Xuefeng; Li, Yaogang; Liu, Jinping. 2019. "Comparative Study on Constitutive Models for 21-4N Heat Resistant Steel during High Temperature Deformation." Materials 12, no. 12: 1893.
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