Next Article in Journal
Dual Oxygen Defects in Layered La1.2Sr0.8−xBaxInO4+δ (x = 0.2, 0.3) Oxide-Ion Conductors: A Neutron Diffraction Study
Previous Article in Journal
Optimization of MBE Growth Conditions of In0.52Al0.48As Waveguide Layers for InGaAs/InAlAs/InP Quantum Cascade Lasers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Thermochemical Route for Extraction and Recycling of Critical, Strategic and High Value Elements from By-Products and End-of-Life Materials, Part I: Treatment of a Copper By-Product in Air Atmosphere

1
GeoRessources Laboratory, UMR 7359 CNRS, CREGU, Université de Lorraine, 2, rue du doyen Roubault, BP 10162, 54505 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France
2
Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, 1029 Tirana, Albania
3
Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Labex DAMAS, Université de Lorraine, Campus Artem, 2 allée André Guinier, BP 50840, 54011 Nancy, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(10), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12101625 (registering DOI)
Received: 26 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization and Processing of Complex Materials)
  |  
PDF [10428 KB, uploaded 17 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Development of our modern society requests a number of critical and strategic elements (platinum group metals, In, Ga, Ge…) and high value added elements (Au, Ag, Se, Te, Ni…) which are often concentrated in by-products during the extraction of base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn…). Further, recycling of end-of-life materials employed in high technology, renewable energy and transport by conventional extractive processes also leads to the concentration of such chemical elements and their compounds in metallurgical by-products and/or co-products. One of these materials, copper anode slime (CAS), derived from a copper electrolytic refining factory, was used for this study. The sample was subjected to isothermal treatment from 225 to 770 °C under air atmosphere and the reaction products were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy through energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the thermal behavior of the treated sample. The main components of the anode slime (CuAgSe, Cu2-xSeyS1-y, Ag3AuSe2) react with oxygen, producing mostly copper and selenium oxides as well as Ag-Au alloys as final products at temperatures higher than 500 °C. Selenium dioxide (SeO2) is volatilized and recovered in pure state by cooling the gaseous phase, whilst copper(II) oxide, silver, gold and tellurium remain in the treatment residue. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical and strategic materials; valuable metals; by-products; copper anode slime; thermal treatment; selenium dioxide critical and strategic materials; valuable metals; by-products; copper anode slime; thermal treatment; selenium dioxide
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kanari, N.; Allain, E.; Shallari, S.; Diot, F.; Diliberto, S.; Patisson, F.; Yvon, J. Thermochemical Route for Extraction and Recycling of Critical, Strategic and High Value Elements from By-Products and End-of-Life Materials, Part I: Treatment of a Copper By-Product in Air Atmosphere. Materials 2019, 12, 1625.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top