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Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Cartilage by the Use of Stem Cells: A Strategy to Improve Regeneration

RAMSES Laboratory, Rizzoli RIT-Research, Innovation & Technology Department, Istituto di Ricerca Codivilla Putti, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano, 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
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Materials 2018, 11(9), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091749
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biomimetic Materials for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering)
Cartilage lesions fail to heal spontaneously, leading to the development of chronic conditions which worsen the life quality of patients. Three-dimensional scaffold-based bioprinting holds the potential of tissue regeneration through the creation of organized, living constructs via a “layer-by-layer” deposition of small units of biomaterials and cells. This technique displays important advantages to mimic natural cartilage over traditional methods by allowing a fine control of cell distribution, and the modulation of mechanical and chemical properties. This opens up a number of new perspectives including personalized medicine through the development of complex structures (the osteochondral compartment), different types of cartilage (hyaline, fibrous), and constructs according to a specific patient’s needs. However, the choice of the ideal combination of biomaterials and cells for cartilage bioprinting is still a challenge. Stem cells may improve material mimicry ability thanks to their unique properties: the immune-privileged status and the paracrine activity. Here, we review the recent advances in cartilage three-dimensional, scaffold-based bioprinting using stem cells and identify future developments for clinical translation. Database search terms used to write this review were: “articular cartilage”, “menisci”, “3D bioprinting”, “bioinks”, “stem cells”, and “cartilage tissue engineering”. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioink; 3D bioprinting; biomaterials; stem cells; cartilage; meniscus; osteoarthritis; 4D printing; organ-on-a-chip bioink; 3D bioprinting; biomaterials; stem cells; cartilage; meniscus; osteoarthritis; 4D printing; organ-on-a-chip
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Roseti, L.; Cavallo, C.; Desando, G.; Parisi, V.; Petretta, M.; Bartolotti, I.; Grigolo, B. Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Cartilage by the Use of Stem Cells: A Strategy to Improve Regeneration. Materials 2018, 11, 1749.

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