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Open AccessArticle

Porous Calcium Phosphate Ceramic Scaffolds with Tailored Pore Orientations and Mechanical Properties Using Lithography-Based Ceramic 3D Printing Technique

1
School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091711
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
This study demonstrates the usefulness of the lithography-based ceramic 3-dimensional printing technique with a specifically designed top-down process for the production of porous calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramic scaffolds with tailored pore orientations and mechanical properties. The processing parameters including the preparation of a photocurable CaP slurry with a high solid loading (φ = 45 vol%), the exposure time for photocuring process, and the initial designs of the porous scaffolds were carefully controlled. Three types of porous CaP scaffolds with different pore orientations (i.e., 0°/90°, 0°/45°/90°/135°, and 0°/30°/60°/90°/120°/150°) were produced. All the scaffolds exhibited a tightly controlled porous structure with straight CaP frameworks arranged in a periodic pattern while the porosity was kept constant. The porous CaP scaffold with a pore orientation of 0°/90° demonstrated the highest compressive strength and modulus due to a number of CaP frameworks parallel to the loading direction. On the other hand, scaffolds with multiple pore orientations may exhibit more isotropic mechanical properties regardless of the loading directions. The porous CaP scaffolds exhibited an excellent in vitro apatite-forming ability in a stimulated body fluid (SBF) solution. These findings suggest that porous CaP scaffolds with tailored pore orientations may provide tunable mechanical properties with good bone regeneration ability. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; photocuring; porous ceramics additive manufacturing; 3D printing; photocuring; porous ceramics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.-B.; Maeng, W.-Y.; Koh, Y.-H.; Kim, H.-E. Porous Calcium Phosphate Ceramic Scaffolds with Tailored Pore Orientations and Mechanical Properties Using Lithography-Based Ceramic 3D Printing Technique. Materials 2018, 11, 1711.

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