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Materials 2018, 11(9), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091680

Novel Porous Phosphorus–Calcium–Magnesium Coatings on Titanium with Copper or Zinc Obtained by DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation: Fabrication and Characterization

1
Division of BioEngineering and Surface Electrochemistry, Department of Engineering and Informatics Systems, Koszalin University of Technology, Racławicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin, Poland
2
HORIBA FRANCE S.A.S., Avenue de la Vauve, Passage Jobin Yvon, 91120 Palaiseau, France
3
Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Realfagbygget E3-124 Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 NO Trondheim, Norway
4
Institute of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Functionalization via Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation)
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Abstract

In this paper, the characteristics of new porous coatings fabricated at three voltages in electrolytes based on H3PO4 with calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, and copper(II) nitrate trihydrate are presented. The SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and XRD techniques for coating identification were used. It was found that the higher the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) (micro arc oxidation (MAO)) voltage, the thicker the porous coating with higher amounts of built-in elements coming from the electrolyte and more amorphous phase with signals from crystalline Ca(H2PO4)2∙H2O and/or Ti(HPO4)2∙H2O. Additionally, the external parts of the obtained porous coatings formed on titanium consisted mainly of Ti4+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and PO43−, HPO42−, H2PO4, P2O74− as well as Zn2+ or copper Cu+/Cu2+. The surface should be characterized by high biocompatibility, due to the presence of structures based on calcium and phosphates, and have bactericidal properties, due to the presence of zinc and copper ions. Furthermore, the addition of magnesium ions should accelerate the healing of postoperative wounds, which could lead to faster patient recovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro arc oxidation; plasma electrolytic oxidation; DC PEO; DC MAO; titanium; calcium nitrate tetrahydrate; magnesium nitrate hexahydrate; copper(II) nitrate trihydrate; 85% phosphoric acid micro arc oxidation; plasma electrolytic oxidation; DC PEO; DC MAO; titanium; calcium nitrate tetrahydrate; magnesium nitrate hexahydrate; copper(II) nitrate trihydrate; 85% phosphoric acid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rokosz, K.; Hryniewicz, T.; Gaiaschi, S.; Chapon, P.; Raaen, S.; Matýsek, D.; Dudek, Ł.; Pietrzak, K. Novel Porous Phosphorus–Calcium–Magnesium Coatings on Titanium with Copper or Zinc Obtained by DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation: Fabrication and Characterization. Materials 2018, 11, 1680.

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