To provide theoretical basis for fire rescue, post-disaster safety evaluation, and reinforcement of concrete structures, C35 concrete materials are treated with high-temperature heating (200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, 800 °C) under two different heating gradients. After natural cooling and water cooling to normal temperature, an impact compression test was carried out at different loading rates using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) system with a diameter of 100 mm, and finally the crushed specimens were subjected to a sieving test. The effects of elevated temperatures, cooling methods, heating gradients, and loading rates on the fragment size distribution, fractal characteristics, and energy dissipation of impact-compressed concrete specimens were studied. The results show that with the increase of the loading rate and the rise of the heating temperature, the crushing degree of concrete specimens gradually increases, the average fragment size decreases, and the mass distribution of the fragments move from the coarse end to the fine end. The fragment size distribution of the specimen has obvious fractal characteristics. In addition, its fractal dimension increases with the increase of loading rate and heating temperature, the average size of the specimen fragments decreases correspondingly, and the fracture of the specimen becomes more serious. When the different heating gradients were compared, it was found that the fractal dimension of the specimens subjected to rapid heating treatment was larger than that of the slow heating treatment specimens, and the crushing degree of the specimens with different cooling methods was discrete. By analyzing the energy dissipation of the specimen under different conditions, it is shown that both the fractal dimension and the peak stress increase with the increase of the fragmentation energy dissipation density. It shows that there is a close correlation between the change of fractal dimension and its macroscopic dynamic mechanical properties.
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