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Open AccessArticle

Enhanced Cycling Stability through Erbium Doping of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material Synthesized by Sol-Gel Technique

1
School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China
2
Research Branch of Advanced Materials & Green Energy, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China
3
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China
4
School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
5
Materials Research Institute and Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, 204 Energy and the Environment Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091558
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
In this work, LiMn2−xErxO4 (x ≤ 0.05) samples were obtained by sol-gel processing with erbium nitrate as the erbium source. XRD measurements showed that the Er-doping had no substantial impact on the crystalline structure of the sample. The optimal LiMn1.97Er0.03O4 sample exhibited an intrinsic spinel structure and a narrow particle size distribution. The introduction of Er3+ ions reduced the content of Mn3+ ions, which seemed to efficiently suppress the Jahn–Teller distortion. Moreover, the decreased lattice parameters suggested that a more stable spinel structure was obtained, because the Er3+ ions in a ErO6 octahedra have stronger bonding energy (615 kJ/mol) than that of the Mn3+ ions in a MnO6 octahedra (402 kJ/mol). The present results suggest that the excellent cycling life of the optimal LiMn1.97Er0.03O4 sample is because of the inhibition of the Jahn-Teller distortion and the improvement of the structural stability. When cycled at 0.5 C, the optimal LiMn1.97Er0.03O4 sample exhibited a high initial capacity of 130.2 mAh g−1 with an excellent retention of 95.2% after 100 cycles. More significantly, this sample showed 83.1 mAh g−1 at 10 C, while the undoped sample showed a much lower capacity. Additionally, when cycled at 55 °C, a satisfactory retention of 91.4% could be achieved at 0.5 C after 100 cycles with a first reversible capacity of 130.1 mAh g−1. View Full-Text
Keywords: cathode material; LiMn2O4; Er-doping; sol-gel method; cycling stability cathode material; LiMn2O4; Er-doping; sol-gel method; cycling stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, H.; Bai, X.; Wang, J.; Li, D.; Li, B.; Wang, Y.; Dong, L.; Liu, B.; Komarneni, S. Enhanced Cycling Stability through Erbium Doping of LiMn2O4 Cathode Material Synthesized by Sol-Gel Technique. Materials 2018, 11, 1558.

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