Unidirectional, bidirectional and tridirectional Buckling-based Negative Stiffness (BNS) lattice metamaterials are designed by adding prefabricated curved beams into multidimensional rigid frames. Finite Element Analysis models are built, and their mechanical performance is investigated and discussed. First, geometric parameters of the curved beam were systematically studied with numerical analyses and the results were validated by theoretical solutions. Next, within unidirectional designs of different layer numbers, the basic properties of multilayer BNS metamaterials were revealed via quasi-static compressions. Then, the bidirectional and tridirectional designs were loaded on orthogonal axes to research both the quasi-static and dynamic behaviors. For dynamic analysis conditions, simulation scenarios of different impact velocities were implemented and compared. The results demonstrate that the proposed numerical analysis step has accurately predicted the force-displacement relations of both the curved beam and multilayer designs and the relations can be tuned via different geometric parameters. Moreover, the macroscopic performance of the metamaterials is sensitive to the rigidity of supporting frames. The shock force during impact is reduced down below the buckling thresholds of metamaterial designs and sharp impact damage is avoided. The presented metamaterials are able to undergo multiaxial stress conditions while retaining the negative stiffness effect and energy-absorbing nature and possess abundant freedom of parametric design, which is potentially useful in shock and vibration engineering.
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