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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Build Orientation on Surface Morphology and Bone Cell Activity of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Specimens

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Faculty of Engineering, University of Applied Science, Technology, Business and Design, Philipp-Müller-Str. 14, 23966 Wismar, Germany
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Biomechanics and Implant Technology Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Rostock University Medical Centre, Doberaner Strasse 142, Rostock 18057, Germany
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Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany
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Institute for Polymer Technologies e.V., Alter Holzhafen 19, 23966 Wismar, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(6), 915; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11060915
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 29 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
Additive manufacturing of lightweight or functional structures by selective laser beam (SLM) or electron beam melting (EBM) is widespread, especially in the field of medical applications. SLM and EBM processes were applied to prepare Ti6Al4V test specimens with different surface orientations (0°, 45° and 90°). Roughness measurements of the surfaces were conducted and cell behavior on these surfaces was analyzed. Hence, human osteoblasts were seeded on test specimens to determine cell viability (metabolic activity, live-dead staining) and gene expression of collagen type 1 (Col1A1), matrix metalloprotease (MMP) 1 and its natural inhibitor, TIMP1, after 3 and 7 days. The surface orientation of specimens during the manufacturing process significantly influenced the roughness. Surface roughness showed significant impact on cellular viability, whereas differences between the time points day 3 and 7 were not found. Collagen type 1 mRNA synthesis rates in human osteoblasts were enhanced with increasing roughness. Both manufacturing techniques further influenced the induction of bone formation process in the cell culture. Moreover, the relationship between osteoblastic collagen type 1 mRNA synthesis rates and specimen orientation during the building process could be characterized by functional formulas. These findings are useful in the designing of biomedical applications and medical devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ti6Al4V; biomaterial; osteoblast; collagen; selective laser sintering; electron beam melting Ti6Al4V; biomaterial; osteoblast; collagen; selective laser sintering; electron beam melting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Weißmann, V.; Drescher, P.; Seitz, H.; Hansmann, H.; Bader, R.; Seyfarth, A.; Klinder, A.; Jonitz-Heincke, A. Effects of Build Orientation on Surface Morphology and Bone Cell Activity of Additively Manufactured Ti6Al4V Specimens. Materials 2018, 11, 915.

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