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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Evaluation of 2D-Printed Edible Films for the Buccal Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Rio, Patras, Greece
Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, 26504 Patras, Greece
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(5), 864;
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 20 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Functional Nanomaterials and Their Applications)
Printing technologies have recently emerged in the development of novel drug delivery systems toward personalized medicine, to improve the performance of formulations, existing bioavailability patterns, and patients’ compliance. In the context of two-dimensional printing, this article presents the development of buccal films that are designed to efficiently deliver a class II compound (diclofenac sodium), according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), to the oral cavity. The preparation of drug-loaded inks was carried out based on solubility studies and evaluation of rheological properties, combining ethanol and propylene glycol as optimal solvents. Deposition of the drug was achieved by increasing the number of printing layers onto edible substrates, to produce formulations with dose variance. Thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the developed films. Drug loading and water uptake studies complemented the initial assessment of the films, and preliminary in vitro studies were conducted to further evaluate their performance. The in vitro release profiles were recorded in simulated saliva, presenting the complete release of the incorporated active in a period of 10 min. The effect of multiple layers on the overall performance of films was completed with in vitro permeation studies, revealing the correlation between the number of printed layers and the apparent permeability coefficient. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2D printing; buccal delivery; edible films 2D printing; buccal delivery; edible films
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eleftheriadis, G.K.; Monou, P.K.; Bouropoulos, N.; Fatouros, D.G. In Vitro Evaluation of 2D-Printed Edible Films for the Buccal Delivery of Diclofenac Sodium. Materials 2018, 11, 864.

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