Titanium and its alloys are frequently employed in medical and dental clinics due to their good tissue compatibility, including commercially available pure Ti, Ti6A4V, or Ti-15Zr-4Ta-4Nb. Yet, they may behave very differently when in contact with our plasma because of their own chemical composition. The present study was designed to compare the in vitro behavior of highly pure Ti (>99.99%; hpTi) with those of the above titanium specimens when they were subjected to heating in air (HT), H2
and heating (CHT), and heating in air after forming grooves on the surface (GT). Since one of the measures of material-tissue compatibility has been in vitro apatite formation in artificial plasma, like simulated body fluid (SBF) of the Kokubo recipe, the apatite deposition in SBF on their surface and in their grooves were examined in terms of the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersion X-ray analysis. The results showed that hpTi was as active in in vitro apatite deposition as the other reference titanium samples mentioned above. Moreover, GT specimens of hpTi induced apatite deposition on the platform of the grooves as well as in the grooves. Therefore, hpTi was concluded to have better activity, and to be clinically applicable.
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