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Open AccessArticle

New Parameters to Quantitatively Express the Invasiveness of Bacterial Strains from Implant-Related Orthopaedic Infections into Osteoblast Cells

1
Research Unit on Implant Infections, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
3
Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT), INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
4
Department of Occupational Medicine, Ergonomy and Disability, Nanotechnology Laboratory, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040550
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Materials Science in Italy 2017)
Complete eradication of bacterial infections is often a challenging task, especially in presence of prosthetic devices. Invasion of non-phagocytic host cells appears to be a critical mechanism of microbial persistence in host tissues. Hidden within host cells, bacteria elude host defences and antibiotic treatments that are intracellularly inactive. The intracellular invasiveness of bacteria is generally measured by conventional gentamicin protection assays. The efficiency of invasion, however, markedly differs across bacterial species and adjustments to the titre of the microbial inocula used in the assays are often needed to enumerate intracellular bacteria. Such changes affect the standardisation of the method and hamper a direct comparison of bacteria on a same scale. This study aims at investigating the precise relation between inoculum, in terms of multiplicity of infection (MOI), and internalised bacteria. The investigation included nine Staphylococcus aureus, seven Staphylococcus epidermidis, five Staphylococcus lugdunensis and two Enterococcus faecalis clinical strains, which are co-cultured with MG63 human osteoblasts. Unprecedented insights are offered on the relations existing between MOI, number of internalised bacteria and per cent of internalised bacteria. New parameters are identified that are of potential use for qualifying the efficiency of internalization and compare the behaviour of bacterial strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: orthopaedic implant infections; bacterial internalization; staphylococcus aureus; staphylococcus epidermidis; staphylcoccus lugdunensis; enterococcus faecalis; osteoblasts orthopaedic implant infections; bacterial internalization; staphylococcus aureus; staphylococcus epidermidis; staphylcoccus lugdunensis; enterococcus faecalis; osteoblasts
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Campoccia, D.; Montanaro, L.; Ravaioli, S.; Cangini, I.; Testoni, F.; Visai, L.; Arciola, C.R. New Parameters to Quantitatively Express the Invasiveness of Bacterial Strains from Implant-Related Orthopaedic Infections into Osteoblast Cells. Materials 2018, 11, 550.

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