Surface topography and composition influence the osteoblastic proliferation and osseointegration rates, which favor the biomechanical stability of bone anchoring and implants. In recent years, beta titanium alloys have been developed, and are composed of biocompatible elements, have low elastic modulus, high corrosion resistance, and mechanical properties to improve the long performance behavior of biomaterials. In the present research, the influence of the acid-etching process was studied in Ti6Al4V ELI and Ti35Nb10Ta1.5Fe. Samples were etched in a two-step acid treatment. Surface roughness parameters were quantified under a confocal microscope, topography was studied by scanning electron microscopy, and surface composition was analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results revealed that the two-step acid treatment changes the topography of the β alloy, increases the surface area, and changes the chemical composition of the surface. Two differentiated regions were identified in the Ti35Nb10Ta1.5Fe alloy after the acid-etching process: The α + β region with higher values of mean roughness due to the lower chemical resistance of this region; and the β region with lower values of roughness parameters.
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