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Materials 2018, 11(11), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112290

Micro-Magnetic and Microstructural Characterization of Wear Progress on Case-Hardened 16MnCr5 Gear Wheels

1
Department of Materials Test Engineering, TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
2
Chair of Industrial and Automotive Drivetrains, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
3
Chair of Materials Technology, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
4
Institute of Machining Technology, TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
Paper dedicated to Professor Michael Pohl on the occasion of his 75th birthday.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Abstract

The evaluation of wear progress of gear tooth flanks made of 16MnCr5 was performed using non-destructive micro-magnetic testing, specifically Barkhausen noise (BN) and incremental permeability (IP). Based on the physical interaction of the microstructure with the magnetic field, the micro-magnetic characterization allowed the analysis of changes of microstructure caused by wear, including phase transformation and development of residual stresses. Due to wide parameter variation and application of bandpass filter frequencies of micro-magnetic signals, it was possible to indicate and separate the main damage mechanisms considering the wear development. It could be shown that the maximum amplitude of BN correlates directly with the profile form deviation and increases with the progress of wear. Surface investigations via optical and scanning electron microscopy indicated strong surface fatigue wear with micro-pitting and micro-cracks, evident in cross-section after 3 × 105 cycles. The result of fatigue on the surface layer was the decrease of residual compression stresses, which was indicated by means of coercivity by BN-analysis. The different topographies of the surfaces, characterized via confocal white light microscopy, were also reflected in maximum BN-amplitude. Using complementary microscopic characterization in the cross-section, a strong correlation between micro-magnetic parameters and microstructure was confirmed and wear progress was characterized in dependence of depth under the wear surface. The phase transformation of retained austenite into martensite according to wear development, measured by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was also detected by micro-magnetic testing by IP-analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: wear; non-destructive testing; micro-magnetic testing; surface fatigue wear; non-destructive testing; micro-magnetic testing; surface fatigue
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Knyazeva, M.; Rozo Vasquez, J.; Gondecki, L.; Weibring, M.; Pöhl, F.; Kipp, M.; Tenberge, P.; Theisen, W.; Walther, F.; Biermann, D. Micro-Magnetic and Microstructural Characterization of Wear Progress on Case-Hardened 16MnCr5 Gear Wheels. Materials 2018, 11, 2290.

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