Next Article in Journal
Stone/Coating Interaction and Durability of Si-Based Photocatalytic Nanocomposites Applied to Porous Lithotypes
Previous Article in Journal
Fabrication of (111)-Oriented Nanotwinned Au Films for Au-to-Au Direct Bonding
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2290;

Micro-Magnetic and Microstructural Characterization of Wear Progress on Case-Hardened 16MnCr5 Gear Wheels

Department of Materials Test Engineering, TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
Chair of Industrial and Automotive Drivetrains, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
Chair of Materials Technology, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
Institute of Machining Technology, TU Dortmund University, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
Paper dedicated to Professor Michael Pohl on the occasion of his 75th birthday.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Full-Text   |   PDF [10023 KB, uploaded 15 November 2018]   |  


The evaluation of wear progress of gear tooth flanks made of 16MnCr5 was performed using non-destructive micro-magnetic testing, specifically Barkhausen noise (BN) and incremental permeability (IP). Based on the physical interaction of the microstructure with the magnetic field, the micro-magnetic characterization allowed the analysis of changes of microstructure caused by wear, including phase transformation and development of residual stresses. Due to wide parameter variation and application of bandpass filter frequencies of micro-magnetic signals, it was possible to indicate and separate the main damage mechanisms considering the wear development. It could be shown that the maximum amplitude of BN correlates directly with the profile form deviation and increases with the progress of wear. Surface investigations via optical and scanning electron microscopy indicated strong surface fatigue wear with micro-pitting and micro-cracks, evident in cross-section after 3 × 105 cycles. The result of fatigue on the surface layer was the decrease of residual compression stresses, which was indicated by means of coercivity by BN-analysis. The different topographies of the surfaces, characterized via confocal white light microscopy, were also reflected in maximum BN-amplitude. Using complementary microscopic characterization in the cross-section, a strong correlation between micro-magnetic parameters and microstructure was confirmed and wear progress was characterized in dependence of depth under the wear surface. The phase transformation of retained austenite into martensite according to wear development, measured by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was also detected by micro-magnetic testing by IP-analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: wear; non-destructive testing; micro-magnetic testing; surface fatigue wear; non-destructive testing; micro-magnetic testing; surface fatigue

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Knyazeva, M.; Rozo Vasquez, J.; Gondecki, L.; Weibring, M.; Pöhl, F.; Kipp, M.; Tenberge, P.; Theisen, W.; Walther, F.; Biermann, D. Micro-Magnetic and Microstructural Characterization of Wear Progress on Case-Hardened 16MnCr5 Gear Wheels. Materials 2018, 11, 2290.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top