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Ion Irradiation-Induced Microstructural Evolution of Ni–Mo–Cr Low Alloy Steels

School of Mechanical Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455002, China
College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
Science and Technology on Reactor Fuel and Materials Laboratory, Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu 610041, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2268;
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
PDF [2818 KB, uploaded 14 November 2018]


As leading candidates of sheet steels for advanced nuclear reactors, three types of Ni–Mo–Cr high-strength low alloy (HSLA) steels named as CNST1, CNST2 and CNSS3 were irradiated by 400 keV Fe+ with peak fluence to 1.4 × 1014, 3.5 × 1014 and 7.0 × 1014 ions/cm2, respectively. The distribution and morphology of the defects induced by the sample preparation method and Fe+ irradiation dose were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and positron-annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). TEM samples were prepared with two methods, i.e., a focused ion beam (FIB) technique and the electroplating and twin-jet electropolishing (ETE) method. Point defects and dislocation loops were observed in CNST1, CNST2 and CNSS3 samples prepared via FIB. On the other hand, samples prepared via the ETE method revealed that a smaller number of defects was observed in CNST1, CNST2 and almost no defects were observed in CNST3. It is indicated that artifact defects could be introduced by FIB preparation. The PAS S-W plots showed that the existence of two types of defects after ion implantation included small-scale defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, dislocation loops and large-sized defects. The S parameter of irradiated steels showed a clear saturation in PAS response with increasing Fe+ dose. At the same irradiation dose, higher values of the S-parameter were achieved in CNST1 and CNST2 samples when compared to that in CNSS3 samples. The mechanism and evolution behavior of irradiation-induced defects were analyzed and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: ion beam irradiation; point defects; dislocations; positron annihilation ion beam irradiation; point defects; dislocations; positron annihilation

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Sun, H.; Lei, P.; Ran, G.; Wang, H.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Qiu, S. Ion Irradiation-Induced Microstructural Evolution of Ni–Mo–Cr Low Alloy Steels. Materials 2018, 11, 2268.

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