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Open AccessArticle

Blood Vessel Formation and Bone Regeneration Potential of the Stromal Vascular Fraction Seeded on a Calcium Phosphate Scaffold in the Human Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation Model

1
Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam 1081 LA, The Netherlands
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, VU University Medical Center/Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands
3
Department of Clinical Chemistry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010161
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
Bone substitutes are used as alternatives for autologous bone grafts in patients undergoing maxillary sinus floor elevation (MSFE) for dental implant placement. However, bone substitutes lack osteoinductive and angiogenic potential. Addition of adipose stem cells (ASCs) may stimulate osteogenesis and osteoinduction, as well as angiogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the vascularization in relation to bone formation potential of the ASC-containing stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue, seeded on two types of calcium phosphate carriers, within the human MSFE model, in a phase I study. Autologous SVF was obtained from ten patients and seeded on β-tricalcium phosphate (n = 5) or biphasic calcium phosphate carriers (n = 5), and used for MSFE in a one-step surgical procedure. After six months, biopsies were obtained during dental implant placement, and the quantification of the number of blood vessels was performed using histomorphometric analysis and immunohistochemical stainings for blood vessel markers, i.e., CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Bone percentages seemed to correlate with blood vessel formation and were higher in study versus control biopsies in the cranial area, in particular in β-tricalcium phosphate-treated patients. This study shows the safety, feasibility, and efficiency of the use of ASCs in the human MSFE, and indicates a pro-angiogenic effect of SVF. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiogenesis; bone; adipose stem cells; calcium phosphates; bone substitutes; clinical translation; clinical trials; adipose angiogenesis; bone; adipose stem cells; calcium phosphates; bone substitutes; clinical translation; clinical trials; adipose
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farré-Guasch, E.; Bravenboer, N.; Helder, M.N.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Ten Bruggenkate, C.M.; Klein-Nulend, J. Blood Vessel Formation and Bone Regeneration Potential of the Stromal Vascular Fraction Seeded on a Calcium Phosphate Scaffold in the Human Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation Model. Materials 2018, 11, 161.

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