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Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds: The Effect of Hydroxyapatite and β-tri-Calcium Phosphate

School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Herminio Ometto University Center, Araras-SP 13607-339, Brazil
Bio-Active Materials Group, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(1), 129;
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 14 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NextGen Materials for 3D Printing)
PDF [4414 KB, uploaded 14 January 2018]


The design of bioactive scaffolds with improved mechanical and biological properties is an important topic of research. This paper investigates the use of polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Different ceramic materials (hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)) were mixed with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). Scaffolds with different material compositions were produced using an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. The produced scaffolds were physically and chemically assessed, considering mechanical, wettability, scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric tests. Cell viability, attachment and proliferation tests were performed using human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs). Results show that scaffolds containing HA present better biological properties and TCP scaffolds present improved mechanical properties. It was also possible to observe that the addition of ceramic particles had no effect on the wettability of the scaffolds. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; hydroxyapatite; scaffold; tri-calcium phosphate 3D printing; hydroxyapatite; scaffold; tri-calcium phosphate

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Huang, B.; Caetano, G.; Vyas, C.; Blaker, J.J.; Diver, C.; Bártolo, P. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds: The Effect of Hydroxyapatite and β-tri-Calcium Phosphate. Materials 2018, 11, 129.

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