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Open AccessArticle

Removal of Hexavalent Chromium in Portland Cement Using Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Powder

Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan
Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University College of Science and Technology, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-8308, Japan
Department of Architecture, Graduate school of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
School of Environmental and Sustainability Sciences, Kean University, Union County, NJ 07083, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(1), 11;
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
Using ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) under different alkaline conditions, we studied the mechanisms and extents of Cr(VI) reduction and sorption and compared them to reactions with Portland cement (PC). We also investigated the effects of mixing PC/GGBS ratios on Cr(VI) dissolution after carbonating the substrates. We observed a complete sorption and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a GGBS-in-Ca(OH)2 solution (pH > ~12.5) after 10 h, whereas in distilled water (pH = ~11.5) GGBS exhibited only marginal sorption and reduction (20%). Cr reactions with dissolved ions in supernatants derived from GGBS indicated that the anions dissolved from GGBS act as a reducing agent for Cr(VI) in a Ca(OH)2 solution. Soft X-ray absorption microscopy identified a partial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) on the GGBS surface. The carbonation of pure PC paste substantially increased the amount of dissolved Cr(VI) in a solution phase whereas a 5 wt % replacement of PC with GGBS significantly reduced the amount of dissolved Cr(VI). We concluded that in the mixed paste during the early curing stage GGBS reduced a significant fraction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and that the Cr(III) adsorbed in the GGBS-PC mixture’s hydration products does not readily dissolve, even under carbonation conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: hexavalent chromium; reduction; immobilization; slag; Portland cement hexavalent chromium; reduction; immobilization; slag; Portland cement
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Bae, S.; Hikaru, F.; Kanematsu, M.; Yoshizawa, C.; Noguchi, T.; Yu, Y.; Ha, J. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium in Portland Cement Using Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag Powder. Materials 2018, 11, 11.

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