Synthesis of Bioactive Chlorogenic Acid-Silica Hybrid Materials via the Sol–Gel Route and Evaluation of Their Biocompatibility
Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa, Italy
Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2017, 10(7), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma10070840
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sol-Gel Chemistry Applied to Materials Science)
Natural phenol compounds are gaining a great deal of attention because of their potential use as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in many diseases, as well as in applied science for their preventing role in oxidation deterioration. With the aim to synthetize new phenol-based materials, the sol–gel method was used to embed different content of the phenolic antioxidant chlorogenic acid (CGA) within silica matrices to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were used to characterize the prepared materials. The new materials were screened for their bioactivity and antioxidant potential. To this latter purpose, direct DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) methods were applied: radical scavenging capability appeared strongly dependent on the phenol amount in investigated hybrids, and became pronounced, mainly toward the ABTS radical cation, when materials with CGA content equal to 15 wt% and 20 wt% were analyzed. The in vitro biocompatibility of the synthetized materials was estimated by using the MTT assay towards fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, and the neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. As cell viability and morphology of tested cell lines seemed to be unaffected by new materials, the attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-FTIR method was applied to deeply measure the effects of the hybrids in the three different cell lines.