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Open AccessArticle

3D Molding of Veneers by Mechanical and Pneumatic Methods

Department of Wood Processing, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Kamýcká 1176, Prague 6–Suchdol 16521, Czech Republic
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Geminiano Mancusi and Nicole Zander
Materials 2017, 10(3), 321;
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
This paper deals with the influence of selected methods (mechanical and pneumatic) as well as various factors (wood species, moisture content, veneer shape, punch diameter, laminating foil thickness, holding method, plasticizing) on 3D molding of veneers. 3D molding was evaluated on the basis of maximum deflection of birch and beech veneers. Cracks and warping edges were also evaluated in selected groups of mechanical molding. Mechanical methods tested veneers with various treatments (steaming, water and ammonia plasticizing and lamination). The pneumatic method was based on veneer shaping using air pressure. The results indicate that birch veneers are more suitable for 3D molding. The differences between the mechanical and pneumatic methods were not considerable. The most suitable method for mechanical 3D molding was the veneer lamination by polyethylene foils with thicknesses of 80 and 125 μm, inasmuch as these achieved better results than veneer plasticized by steam. The occurrence of cracks was more frequent in beech veneers, whereas, edge warping occurred at similar rates for both wood species and depends rather on holding method during 3D molding. Use of the ammonia solution is more suitable and there occurs no marked increase in moisture as happens when soaking in water. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D molding; veneer; maximum deflection; lamination; plasticizing; ammonia 3D molding; veneer; maximum deflection; lamination; plasticizing; ammonia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaff, M.; Gašparík, M. 3D Molding of Veneers by Mechanical and Pneumatic Methods. Materials 2017, 10, 321.

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