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Energies 2016, 9(9), 681;

Analysis of Photovoltaic Self-Consumption Systems

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maurizio Sasso and Carlo Roselli
Received: 4 June 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Technologies for Small Scale Applications)
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Components and installation prices could make the self-consumption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems competitive. In this paper, we explore different self-consumption options, off-grid PV systems (with back-up generator and/or batteries), and grid-connected PV systems under net-metering policies. The calculation of the net present cost (NPC) reveals that the grid-connected PV-only case (for the net-metering scheme) is the most attractive from the technical and financial points of view, with a levelised cost of energy less than 0.1 €/kWh. Off-grid PV + Diesel + Batteries has a higher cost, around two or three times the grid-connected PV-only under net metering. Additionally, the off-grid PV + Diesel is less attractive from a financial point of view, which has a cost of around 10 times the PV-only under net metering. In addition, the values of life cycle CO2 emissions in each of the cases studied have been compared, and we have concluded that although the off-grid PV + Diesel + Batteries system presents lower CO2 emissions than the PV-only system, the existence of batteries does not allow one to affirm that the PV + Diesel + Batteries system is the best from an environmental point of view. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic tariffs; self-consumption; net metering; remuneration policies; grid parity photovoltaic tariffs; self-consumption; net metering; remuneration policies; grid parity

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sarasa-Maestro, C.J.; Dufo-López, R.; Bernal-Agustín, J.L. Analysis of Photovoltaic Self-Consumption Systems. Energies 2016, 9, 681.

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