Components and installation prices could make the self-consumption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems competitive. In this paper, we explore different self-consumption options, off-grid PV systems (with back-up generator and/or batteries), and grid-connected PV systems under net-metering policies. The calculation of the net present cost (NPC) reveals that the grid-connected PV-only case (for the net-metering scheme) is the most attractive from the technical and financial points of view, with a levelised cost of energy less than 0.1 €/kWh. Off-grid PV + Diesel + Batteries has a higher cost, around two or three times the grid-connected PV-only under net metering. Additionally, the off-grid PV + Diesel is less attractive from a financial point of view, which has a cost of around 10 times the PV-only under net metering. In addition, the values of life cycle CO2
emissions in each of the cases studied have been compared, and we have concluded that although the off-grid PV + Diesel + Batteries system presents lower CO2
emissions than the PV-only system, the existence of batteries does not allow one to affirm that the PV + Diesel + Batteries system is the best from an environmental point of view.
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