# Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Characteristics of Photovoltaic Systems

_{oc}) and short circuit current (I

_{sc}) as obtained from the manufacturer’s data sheet.

_{s}number of cells all contribute to the output power. The output current of the module can be determined by the following equation:

_{pv}and V

_{pv}are the output current and voltage respectively, I

_{o1}is the diode saturation level, q has a value of 1.602 × 10

^{−19}C and represents electron charge constant, A and K are the diode ideality factor and Boltzmann constant respectively, T

_{k}is the operating temperature which in this paper is considered to be the reference temperature (25 °C), and I

_{ph}is the current generated from solar energy given as follows:

_{p}, in Equation (1), is typically very high. In the modeling of the PV module R

_{p}is sometimes assumed as have negligible impact and of infinite resistance. In contrast, R

_{S}needs to be considered because of its significant to the output power. The electrical parameters of the KC85T PV module are listed in Table 1.

## 3. Radial Movement Optimization

#### 3.1. Theory

#### 3.1.1. Initialization

_{max(j)}and X

_{min(j)}represent the constraints of the jth dimension, defined at the start of the programming. The rand (0,1) is taken from a normal distribution, like a Gaussian distribution between 0 and 1.

#### 3.1.2. Movement Vectors

_{max}is equal to 1, and W

_{min}to 0. Figure 6 illustrates how the particles escape from the centre. The centre is shown as red, and the particles are scattered along the centre in black color. The dashed circle demonstrates the boundaries of V

_{max}.

#### 3.2. RMO Based MPPT

_{i}) returns the output power of the PV panel, respective to the location of ith particle in the search space. Given that partial shading is an environmental phenomenon, it is stochastic in nature and therefore there are innumerable partial shading conditions possible. Herein, three challenging partial shading conditions are selected for the purpose of evaluating the proposed MPPT technique. The first condition considered is common one where two peaks appear on the system’s output Power-Voltage curve. The second condition refers to where partial shading causes multiple peaks with similar output power values making it challenging to determine the global MPP. This condition is used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed MPPT technique. The third condition is where the global MPP is amongst multiple local maxima. These three conditions were chosen on the assumption that they cover a large proportion of partial shading conditions, and therefore provide a solid foundation for evaluating the proposed MPPT technique.

## 4. Circuit Topology and Operation of the DC-DC Converter in the PV System

## 5. Results and Discussion

#### 5.1. Testing Conditions

^{2}(G1 = G2 = 1000) and the entire module two receives an irradiance level of 350 W/m

^{2}(G3 = G4 = 350); (ii) the entire module one receives an irradiance level of 1000 W/m

^{2}(G1 = G2 = 1000) and module two receives irradiance levels of 700 W/m

^{2}and 500 W/m

^{2}(G3 = 700, G4 = 500); (iii) module one receives irradiance levels of (G1 = 1200, G2 = 700) and module two receives irradiance levels of 700 W/m

^{2}and 500 W/m

^{2}(G3 = 500, G4 = 300). The RMO technique is applied to all of these conditions to evaluate the quality of tracking, and the results are compared with those of the PSO method.

#### 5.1.1. First Scenario

#### 5.1.2. Second Scenario

#### 5.1.3. Third Scenario

#### 5.2. Convergence Speed, Power Loss, and Computational Cost

## 6. Conclusions and Future Works

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Output characteristic curves for the KC85T PV module for no-shading conditions (

**a**) Current–Voltage correlation curves and (

**b**) Power–Voltage correlation curves [36].

**Figure 6.**Scattering of the particles along the radii [39].

**Figure 7.**Updating the centre point using an update vector [39].

**Figure 9.**Circuitry diagram of the selected PV array [36].

**Figure 10.**The output results of the proposed method and PSO method under shading condition for the first scenario.

**Figure 11.**The output results of the proposed method and PSO method under shading condition for the second scenario.

**Figure 12.**The output results of the proposed method and PSO method under shading condition in third scenario.

**Figure 13.**Convergence of the proposed RMO method versus PSO technique for three shading conditions.

**Figure 14.**The output voltage fluctuation of the PV system controlled by the RMO method versus PSO technique for three shading conditions.

**Figure 15.**Dynamic performance of proposed method vs. PSO: (

**a**) during shading condition changes; (

**b**) during load changes.

Electrical Characteristics | KC85T |
---|---|

Open circuit voltage | 21.7 V |

Short circuit current | 5.34 A |

Maximum power voltage | 17.4 V |

Maximum power current | 5.02 A |

Maximum power | 87 W |

I_{SC} temperature coefficient | 2.12 × 10^{−3} A/°C |

V_{OC} temperature coefficient | −8.21 × 10^{−2} V/°C |

Components | Values |
---|---|

Inductor L1 | 5 mH |

Inductor L2 | 5 mH |

Capacitor C1 | 47 µf |

Capacitor C2 | 1 µf |

Switching Frequency | 20 kHz |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Horan, B.; Rahmani, R.; Maung Than Oo, A.; Stojcevski, A.
Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique. *Energies* **2016**, *9*, 147.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030147

**AMA Style**

Seyedmahmoudian M, Horan B, Rahmani R, Maung Than Oo A, Stojcevski A.
Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique. *Energies*. 2016; 9(3):147.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030147

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Seyedmahmoudian, Mehdi, Ben Horan, Rasoul Rahmani, Aman Maung Than Oo, and Alex Stojcevski.
2016. "Efficient Photovoltaic System Maximum Power Point Tracking Using a New Technique" *Energies* 9, no. 3: 147.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en9030147