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Correction published on 22 July 2016, see Energies 2016, 9(7), 546.
Open AccessArticle

Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

1
Computer Science Department, Internet Interdisciplinary Institute, Open University of Catalonia, 08018 Barcelona, Spain
2
Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnológico para la Industria Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, CONICET, 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
3
Statistics and Operations Research Department, Public University of Navarre, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
4
Industrial and Systems Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: K. T. Chau
Energies 2016, 9(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9020086
Received: 14 December 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 28 January 2016
Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations for electric-based vehicles, meaning that investment decisions need to be made about the number, location, and capacity of these stations. Similarly, the limited driving-range capabilities of EVs, which are restricted by the amount of electricity stored in their batteries, impose non-trivial additional constraints when designing efficient distribution routes. Accordingly, this paper identifies and reviews several open research challenges related to the introduction of EVs in L&T activities, including: (a) environmental-related issues; and (b) strategic, planning and operational issues associated with “standard” EVs and with hydrogen-based EVs. The paper also analyzes how the introduction of EVs in L&T systems generates new variants of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem, one of the most studied optimization problems in the L&T field, and proposes the use of metaheuristics and simheuristics as the most efficient way to deal with these complex optimization problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; logistics and transportation; green vehicle routing problems electric vehicles; logistics and transportation; green vehicle routing problems
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Juan, A.A.; Mendez, C.A.; Faulin, J.; De Armas, J.; Grasman, S.E. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges. Energies 2016, 9, 86.

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