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A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011)

by 1,†, 2,*,†, 3,†, 1,† and 2,†
1
Information Center for Global Change Studies, Lanzhou Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
University of Southern Queensland, Institute for Agriculture and the Environment, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350, Australia
3
MOE Key Laboratory of Western China’s Environmental Systems, Research School of Arid Environment & Climate Change, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Paul Stewart
Energies 2015, 8(9), 10537-10557; https://doi.org/10.3390/en80910537
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy for Agriculture)
The household sector consumes a large amount of goods and services and is therefore a major source of global carbon emissions. This study aims to analyze per person household carbon emission (HCEs) patterns of urban and rural China over the period from 1995 to 2011. Annual macroeconomic data for the study were obtained from authentic Chinese government sources. Direct HCE estimates for each fossil fuel were obtained using the IPCC’s reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. In 1995, per person HCEs from direct sources for urban and rural China were 0.50 tCO2 and 0.22 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 0.60 tCO2 and 0.61 tCO2, an increase of 20% and 177.27%, respectively. Similarly, in 1995, per person HCEs from indirect sources for urban and rural China were 0.43 tCO2 and 0.16 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 1.77 tCO2 and 0.53 tCO2, respectively, an increase of 306% and 235%. The reasons for these differences and the sets of policies required to rectify increasing emissions are discussed. If current trends and practices continue, with a RMB1000 increase in per capita income from 2011 levels, per person HCEs in urban and rural China will increase by 0.119 tCO2 and 0.197 tCO2, respectively. This result indicates that the sector of society which is most vulnerable will contribute most to China’s increasing HCEs. Therefore, while developing energy consumption and emissions reduction policies and programs, principles of fairness and equity need to be followed. View Full-Text
Keywords: per capita income; household size; direct emissions; indirect emission; China per capita income; household size; direct emissions; indirect emission; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qu, J.; Maraseni, T.; Liu, L.; Zhang, Z.; Yusaf, T. A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011). Energies 2015, 8, 10537-10557. https://doi.org/10.3390/en80910537

AMA Style

Qu J, Maraseni T, Liu L, Zhang Z, Yusaf T. A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011). Energies. 2015; 8(9):10537-10557. https://doi.org/10.3390/en80910537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qu, Jiansheng; Maraseni, Tek; Liu, Lina; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yusaf, Talal. 2015. "A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011)" Energies 8, no. 9: 10537-10557. https://doi.org/10.3390/en80910537

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