Failure Mode Identification and End of Life Scenarios of Offshore Wind Turbines: A Review
2. Service life Failure Mode Identification
|Rotor (Hub)||Ref||Blades||Ref||Generator (Bearing Stator and Rotor)||Ref|
|Aerodynamic asymmetry||||Cracks||||Inter turn short circuit|||
|Yaw misalignment||||Delaminations of the composite||||Abnormal connection of the stator winding|||
|Creep and corrosion fatigue||||Surface wear||||Dynamic eccentricity|||
|Non-uniform air gap (bearings)||||Increased surface roughness||||Opening or shorting of stator or rotor winding circuits|||
|Hub spinng on shaft||||Fatigue||||Rotor eccentricity||[26,27]|
|Shaft misalignment||||Lightning strikes||||Rotor broken bar|||
|Torsional oscillation||||High vibrations||||Rotor cracked end-ring|||
|Deviation in the torque-speed ratio||||Flapwise fatigue damage||||Torque reduction|||
|Mass imbalance||||Unsteady blades air loads||||Excessive stresses during operation|||
|Pitch control||Ref||Blade fracture||||Static and/or dynamic air gap eccentricities|||
|Premature brake activation||||Unsteady performance||||Increased torque pulsation||[18,31]|
|Inability of excessive operational load mitigation||||Corrosion||||Excessive heating in the winding|||
|Operation instability due to hydraulic system failure||||Gearbox (bearings and gears)||Ref||Increase in losses and efficiency reduction|||
|Air contamination in the hydraulic system||||Gear tooth damage||||Rotor misalignment|||
|Inability of aerodynamic braking||||Pitting||||Imbalances and harmonics in the air gap flux||[18,40]|
|Hydraulic fluid bulk modulus reduction||||Cracking||||Shorted winding coil (reduction in generator reactance)|||
|Leakage in the hydraulic system||||Gear eccentricity||||Tower and Foundation||Ref|
|Asymmetry in pitch angle||||Tooth crack||||Fatigue|||
|Power electronics and electric controls||Ref||Shaft-Gearbox coupling failure||||Cracks|||
|Semiconductor devices defects||||Scratching (abrasive wear)||||Corrosion|||
|Open circuit failure in 3-phase power converter||||Scoring (adhesive wear)||||Excessive fouling of foundation|||
|Short circuit failure in 3-phase power converter||||Lubricant viscosity changes||||Loss of capacity in foundation due to cyclic loading|||
|Gate-drive circuit failure in 3-phase power converter||||Lubricant loss of water content||||Soil instability|||
|Overheating||||Presence of additives/debris in the lubricant||||Earthquakes|||
|Error in wind speed/direction measurement||||–||–||Change of modal parameters due to cyclic loading|||
2.1. Rotor and blades
2.2. Pitch Control System
2.5. Power Electronics and electric controls
2.6. Tower and Foundation
3. Review of EOL scenarios
3.1. Life Extension
- The WF’s profitability—as time passes both performance and reliability decrease.
- The profits expectation for both life extension and the different repowering options.
- The cost-benefit ratio that repowering will present against the full decommissioning of the WF and project components recycling.
- Same tower with a new, lower capacity turbine: this option combines a smaller WT that may even produce less electricity, needs less maintenance (higher availability) and have a nominal service life of an additional 25 years, with the same tower that, having decreased the power of the turbine, will have less applied loads and therefore longer fatigue life.
- Same tower with a new, higher capacity turbine: this option combines a higher WT that will produce more electricity and will last another 25 years, with the same tower that having increased the power of the turbine will be subject to greater loads and therefore its structural integrity should be rigorously reassessed. For that reason, this option usually will not be favourable, unless the structural integrity of the tower will be sufficient to fulfil the new requirements.
- New tower with a new, higher capacity turbine: this option entails the tower and nacelle decommissioning for the later commissioning of a new WT.
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Luengo, M.M.; Kolios, A. Failure Mode Identification and End of Life Scenarios of Offshore Wind Turbines: A Review. Energies 2015, 8, 8339-8354. https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088339
Luengo MM, Kolios A. Failure Mode Identification and End of Life Scenarios of Offshore Wind Turbines: A Review. Energies. 2015; 8(8):8339-8354. https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088339Chicago/Turabian Style
Luengo, Maria Martinez, and Athanasios Kolios. 2015. "Failure Mode Identification and End of Life Scenarios of Offshore Wind Turbines: A Review" Energies 8, no. 8: 8339-8354. https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088339