Next Article in Journal
Performance of a Small-Scale, Variable Temperature Fixed Dome Digester in a Temperate Climate
Next Article in Special Issue
Determining the Limiting Current Density of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Previous Article in Journal
Modeling Analysis of Bi-Layer Ni-(ZrO2)x(Y2O3)1−x Anodes for Anode-Supported Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Correction: Marino, M.; Misuri, L.; Carati, A.; Brogioli, D. Proof-of-Concept of a Zinc-Silver Battery for the Extraction of Energy from a Concentration Difference. Energies 2014, 7, 3664–3683
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2014, 7(9), 5675-5700;

An Acausal Li-Ion Battery Pack Model for Automotive Applications

WMG, International Digital Laboratory, the University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
Claytex Services Ltd., Edmund House, Rugby Road, Leamington Spa CV32 6EL, UK
Hybrids & Electrification, Jaguar & Land Rover, Banbury Road, Warwick CV35 0XJ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 13 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3031 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]   |  


In this work, a novel acausal and reconfigurable battery pack model is presented. The model structure adopted for the battery cell is based on an equivalent circuit representation. The circuit elements are modified to take account of both hysteresis and diffusion limitation. The latter is known to be a nonlinear function of large operating currents or long operating times. It is shown that the integration of a current dependent time constant within the cell model better emulates the solid diffusional dynamics of lithium intercalation into the active material under large electrical loads. The advantages of an acausal modeling approach, when scaling-up individual cell models into a complete battery system are also presented. Particular consideration is given to emulating the impact of cell to cell variations on pack performance. Using statistical analysis of battery tests, cell model parameter variations are characterized and quantified. The cell and scaled-up pack model are parameterized for a number of commercially available cell formats, energy capacities and chemistries. The new models are validated using transient, real-world, electrical data measured from an electric vehicle (EV) operating within an urban environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium ion; battery modeling; electric vehicle (EV); battery management system; battery pack lithium ion; battery modeling; electric vehicle (EV); battery management system; battery pack

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Uddin, K.; Picarelli, A.; Lyness, C.; Taylor, N.; Marco, J. An Acausal Li-Ion Battery Pack Model for Automotive Applications. Energies 2014, 7, 5675-5700.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top