Next Article in Journal
Experimental Study on a Passive Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System
Next Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Solid and Aqueous Phase Products from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Whole and Lipid-Extracted Algae
Previous Article in Journal
Energy Analysis of a Student-Designed Solar House
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cellular Cycling, Carbon Utilization, and Photosynthetic Oxygen Production during Bicarbonate-Induced Triacylglycerol Accumulation in a Scenedesmus sp.
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Energies 2013, 6(12), 6391-6412;

Biofuel Production in Ireland—An Approach to 2020 Targets with a Focus on Algal Biomass

School of Biosystems Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Hall, La Touche House, Custom House Dock, IFSC, Dublin 1, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 19 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Fuel 2013)
Full-Text   |   PDF [414 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]   |  


Under the Biofuels Obligation Scheme in Ireland, the biofuels penetration rate target for 2013 was set at 6% by volume from a previous 4% from 2010. In 2012 the fuel blend reached 3%, with approximately 70 million L of biodiesel and 56 million L of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline, respectively. Up to and including April 2013, the current blend rate in Ireland for biodiesel was 2.3% and for bioethanol was 3.7% which equates to approximately 37.5 million L of biofuel for the first four months of 2013. The target of 10% by 2020 remains, which equates to approximately 420 million L yr−1. Achieving the biofuels target would require 345 ktoe by 2020 (14,400 TJ). Utilizing the indigenous biofuels in Ireland such as tallow, used cooking oil and oil seed rape leaves a shortfall of approximately 12,000 TJ or 350 million L (achieving only 17% of the 10% target) that must be either be imported or met by other renewables. Other solutions seem to suggest that microalgae (for biodiesel) and macroalgae (for bioethanol) could meet this shortfall for indigenous Irish production. This paper aims to review the characteristics of algae for biofuel production based on oil yields, cultivation, harvesting, processing and finally in terms of the European Union (EU) biofuels sustainability criteria, where, up to 2017, a 35% greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction is required compared to fossil fuels. From 2017 onwards, a 50% GHG reduction is required for existing installations and from 2018, a 60% reduction for new installations is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; bioethanol; microalgae; macroalgae; indigenous production; Ireland biodiesel; bioethanol; microalgae; macroalgae; indigenous production; Ireland

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Murphy, F.; Devlin, G.; Deverell, R.; McDonnell, K. Biofuel Production in Ireland—An Approach to 2020 Targets with a Focus on Algal Biomass. Energies 2013, 6, 6391-6412.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top