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Energies 2013, 6(10), 5023-5045;

A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

Department of Offshore, Process and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 27 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy from the Ocean - Wave and Tidal Energy)
Full-Text   |   PDF [239 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]


This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE) analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project. View Full-Text
Keywords: PESTLE analysis; tidal industry; risk identification PESTLE analysis; tidal industry; risk identification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Kolios, A.; Read, G. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom. Energies 2013, 6, 5023-5045.

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