Next Article in Journal
Performance Analysis of a Double-effect Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with a Silica Gel/Water Working Pair
Previous Article in Journal
Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluating the Use of an Integrated Approach to Support Energy and Climate Policy Formulation and Evaluation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2010, 3(10), 1691-1703;

Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

Environmental and Nano Science Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
Sustainable Energy Futures, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2010 / Accepted: 27 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy-sustainable Development)
PDF [243 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]


Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; conversion efficiency; glycerol; transesterification; ultrasound biodiesel; conversion efficiency; glycerol; transesterification; ultrasound

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Babajide, O.; Petrik, L.; Amigun, B.; Ameer, F. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology. Energies 2010, 3, 1691-1703.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top